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托福TPO-26 Lecture 1(下)

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The next new moon, after the heliacal rising of Sirius, which happened in the last month of the calendar year, marked the New Year.

“偕日出”之后,一年最后一个月里的新月,标志着古埃及人新年的到来。

And because the ancient Egyptians were using the lunar cycle in combination with this heliacal rising, some years ended up having 12 lunar months, while others had 13 lunar months, if Sirius didn't rise in the 12th month.

因为古埃及人的历法包括了月相和天狼星的“偕日出”,有的年份有12个月;如果天狼星没有在第12个月升起的话,那么当年就会有13个月。

Even though the length of the agricultural calendar still fluctuated, with some years having 12 months and others having 13, it ended up being much more reliable than it was before.

即使这个农业的日历仍然是波动的,一些有12个月,一些有13个月。它却比以前的历法系统更为可信了。

They continually adjusted it to the heliacal rising of Sirius, ensuring that they never got too far off in their seasons.

他们不断协调历法,以保证与天狼星的出现保持一致,确保他们不会错过各种季节。

This new calendar was ideal, because, well, it worked well for agricultural purposes as well as for knowing when to have traditional religious festivals.

这个新日历很理想。因为,嗯,它既很好地服务于农业,又能够提醒宗教的节日的到来。

So, that was their first calendar.

总之,这就是他们的第一个日历。

But was it any way to run a government? They didn't think so.

但他们用这一套来管理政府吗?他们不这么认为。

For administrative purposes, it was very inconvenient to have years of different lengths.

对于行政管理功能,长短变化的日历并不方便。

So another calendar was introduced, an administrative one.

所以另外一个日历就出现了,它专门被用于行政管理。

Probably soon after 3,000 BC, they declared a 365-day year, with 12 months per year, with exactly 30 days each month, with an extra 5 days at the end of each year.

大概在3000年之后,他们宣布了一个长度为365天的年,每年有12个月,每个月严格地对应了30天,年尾有5天。

This administrative calendar existed alongside the earlier agricultural and religious calendar that depended on the heliacal rising of Sirius.

这个政府的日历与早期的农业历、依赖于天狼星的宗教历并行不悖。

This administrative calendar was much easier to use for things like scheduling taxes and other things that had to be paid on time.

这个行政日历很好地用于安排税收或者其他的需要按时交纳的东西。

Over time, the calendar got out of step with seasons and the flooding of the Nile, but for bureaucratic purposes, they didn't mind.

随着时间的流逝,这个日历逐渐与季节和尼罗河的淹没脱离了关系,但由于这项日历是被用于官方目的,政府官员并不看重它是否有农业方面的用途。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
inconvenient [.inkən'vi:njənt]

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adj. 不方便的

 
calendar ['kæləndə]

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n. 日历,月历,日程表
vt. 把 ...

联想记忆
bureaucratic [bjuə.rəu'krætik]

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adj. 官僚的,繁文缛节的

 
combination [.kɔmbi'neiʃən]

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n. 结合,联合,联合体

联想记忆
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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adj. 传统的

 
reliable [ri'laiəbl]

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adj. 可靠的,可信的

 

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