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经济学人:匈牙利的过去 有争议的遗产

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Hungary's past

匈牙利的过去
His contentious legacy
有争议的“遗产”
A wartime leader still divides Hungarians
匈牙利战时领袖依旧掀起大争议
ADMIRAL MIKLOS HORTHY, Hungary's controversial wartime leader and an ally of Hitler, is enjoying something of a revival of late. The latest addition to the dozen or so commemorative plaques, statues and street renamings was unveiled on November 3rd at a Calvinist church in a central square in Budapest.
Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya是匈牙利的战时领袖,希特勒的盟友,曾饱受社会争议,如今再次被推上舆论的风口浪尖。近期于11月3日,位于匈牙利首都布达佩斯市中心广场的一家加尔文主义教堂,宣布新增12处或更多的纪念牌匾、雕像及街道更名。
Hundreds of protesters, many wearing yellow stars, exchanged insults with those attending the presentation of a new statue supported by the far-right Jobbik party. Under its minister, Lorant Hegedus junior, the church has long been a place of pilgrimage for the far right. The Horthy statue has caused consternation and anger in the church. Istvan Szabo, the local bishop, called for an urgent inquiry. Reform church ministers should refrain from divisive and shocking behaviour, he said.
数百人身着黄星,出席抗议,与在会的其他人互诉参加此次由极右政党Jobbik 发起的新雕塑揭幕仪式是多么大的耻辱。因为现任牧师Lorant Hegedus junior,教堂早已俨然成为极右派的圣地。看到雕塑是Horthy的那一刹那,众人着实大吃一惊,继而悲愤不已。当地教主Istvan Szabo对此立马提出疑问,要求得到解释。他提出,改革派教堂的牧师应该避免出现内部分裂惊乍行为。

Antal Rogan, the local mayor and parliamentary leader of the ruling centre-right Fidesz party, condemned the statue as “provocation”. But so far the government has hedged its bets. Janos Lazar, the head of the prime minister's office, said that Horthy's rule should be assessed by historians not politicians. The government uses double talk about Horthy, says Krisztian Ungvary, a historian. “They have to win Jobbik voters so they will never openly and consistently condemn the Horthy era, as it would upset their supporters.”

Antal Rogan是布达佩斯市市长,兼任极右派Fidesz 党的议会负责人,他谴责塑立Horthy的雕像完全是一种挑衅。不过,政府采纳明哲保身的态度,至今还尚未作出明确表态。内阁首相Janos Lazar表示,论Horthy统治的功与过应该是历史学家的事儿,政治家无需干涉。历史学家Krisztian Ungvary对此回应,政府在Horthy一事上陈述含糊,模棱两可。“因为要赢取Jobbik党的选票,他们必定不能公开一味地谴责Horthy的统治时期,否则会惹怒这群支持者。
Nonsense, say officials. A Fidesz government established the Budapest Holocaust Memorial Centre in 2002. The government has set up a commission to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the mass deportations to Auschwitz. Speaking at a conference on anti-Semitism recently, Tibor Navracsics, the deputy prime minister, said in an unprecedented admission of wartime guilt that the Hungarian state had turned on its own citizens. “The perpetrators were Hungarians, it was Hungarians who fired the shots and it was Hungarians who died,” he said.
一派胡言,官方如此说道。Fidesz政府于2002年建立。同时,设立一委员会主持策划布达佩斯的大屠杀纪念中心70周年活动。匈牙利副总理Tibor Navracsics最近在一次有关犹太歧视问题的会议上,破天荒地承认了国家过去发起战争的罪行,表达了忏悔之心,并表示已在民众施以同样的情感教育。他这样说道,“罪在匈牙利,匈牙利始作俑者,开枪,最后至死的也是匈牙利自己。”
Admiral Horthy still arouses furious passions. He declared war on the Allies in 1941. Hungary's war on the eastern front saw 200,000 soldiers killed or captured. Jewish servicemen and political prisoners were forced to march through minefields to clear them. Horthy passed four anti-Jewish laws, the earliest, in 1920, limiting the number of Jewish students at universities, the last, in 1941, outlawing sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews. After the Nazis invaded Hungary in March 1944, Horthy allowed 437,000 Hungarian Jews to be deported to Auschwitz in less than two months. Most were killed on arrival.
提及Admiral Horthy,民众仍旧义愤填膺。1941年,他对盟友宣战。在这场东进战争中,高达20万士兵或是牺牲,或是被捕。而后,迫使犹太士兵或政治俘虏跨越矿区为那些匈牙利士兵收尸。Admiral Horthy共颁布4部反犹太法,最早的是在1920年,限制犹太族上大学人数,最后一部是在1941年,禁止犹太人与其他种族通婚。当1944年3月,纳粹攻陷匈牙利时,Admiral Horthy同意把43。7万犹太人逐往,历时不到两个月。大多数犹太人一到目的地就被残杀了。
Horthy did his best, say his defenders, not all of whom are found in Jobbik. Until the Nazis invaded, Hungary remained a comparatively safe haven for its Jews. Horthy's repeated refusal of Hitler's demands to deport all of the Jews was one reason why the Germans invaded. His envoys were in secret contact with the Allies and he wanted to change sides, which is why he was deposed in October 1944 by Hungarian Nazis and their German allies, triggering a new round of terror against Budapest's surviving Jews.
Horthy的支持者不仅仅只限于,他们一致辩道,Horthy在犹太问题上已经尽力了。纳粹入侵前,对犹太人而言,匈牙利相对还是安全的。而Horthy多次拒绝希特勒下令驱逐犹太人,正是德国后来侵犯匈牙利的一大原因。Horthy秘密派遣使节与同盟交流,企求改变对方的立场。这正是为什么Horthy自己在1944年10月遭到匈牙利纳粹与其德国盟友的双面排斥,再次引发布达佩斯幸存犹太人的恐慌。
Meanwhile, says Fidesz, the left and far right work together when it suits them. Socialist leaders recently submitted a petition in parliament calling for an investigation into government interventions in the energy industry. The petition, now withdrawn, was also signed by 24 Jobbik MPs—including, as it happens, the wife of Mr Hegedus.
同时,Fidesz表示时机恰当,左右党派可以开展合作。前不久,社会党派领导人向议会上呈一项请愿书,要求调查政府对能源产业的干涉情况。该请愿书现已被驳回,但已有24位极右派议会成员的签名,甚至还包括Hegedus的夫人。译者:徐珍 校对:沈晓旭

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n. 恐怖,惊骇,令人惧怕或讨厌的人或事物

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deport [di'pɔ:t]

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vt. 驱逐出境,举止

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addition [ə'diʃən]

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