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托福TPO-27 Lecture 2(中)

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There's a particularly interesting case with an extraordinary generation of violins made in Northern Italy, in the city of Cremona, back in the late 1600s—early 1700s.

有一个特别有趣的例子,在17世纪末期18世纪初,意大利北部城市克雷莫纳产了一批非常棒的小提琴。

These vintage Cremonese violins are considered the best in the world.

这些古老的小提琴被认为是世界上最好的小提琴。

But it's not like the makers of those violins were any more skilled than their modern-day counterparts.

但并不是说这批小提琴的制造者就比其他现代制琴师的技艺高超。

They weren't. Today's top violin makers can pretty much replicate all the physical attributes of a Cremonese violin.

他们并不是。现在顶级的小提琴制琴师能基本复制出克雷莫纳小提琴的物理性质。

小提琴.jpg

But it's generally thought that the acoustical quality of modern violins doesn't live up to the quality of the vintage ones.

但普遍认为,现代小提琴的音质并不如以前的小提琴好。

Student: So what attributes of the old violins have been replicated?

能复制出复古小提琴的什么性质呢?

Professor: Oh, their dimensions, shape, their fingerboard height, uh, general craftsmanship.

噢,大小、形状、指板高度,嗯,基本的工艺。

For a long time, people thought the varnish used to coat and protect the violins was special.

很长时间以来,人们以为小提琴的表面防护涂层很特别。

But research showed it was the same ordinary varnish used on furniture.

但调查表明,涂层和普通家具涂层是一样的。

However, researchers have discovered that there are something special about the wood the violins were made from.

但研究人员发现,制造小提琴的木材有些特别之处。

And recently they have been able to replicate that too.

最近人们也能复制出来了。

Student: How? Unless the trees that Cremonese used are still alive.

怎么做到的?除非克雷莫纳人用的树到现在还活着。

Professor: The trees weren't replicated, just the wood, specifically the wood's density.

人们没有复制树,只复制木材,特别是木材密度。

Density is determined by how trees grow.

密度由树的生长方式决定。

Trees, all trees that don't grow in the tropics grow seasonally, they grow faster early in the year in the springtime than they do later in the year.

所有不生长在热带地区的树都是季节性生长的,它们在每年初(春天)长得较快,之后较慢。

So early growth wood is relatively porous.

所以先长出来的木头相对多孔。

Late growth wood is denser, less porous.

晚长得木头更紧密,没这么多孔。

And this variation shows up in the trees growth rings.

在树的年轮也能看出这个差异。

The denser layers are generally darker than the less dense layers.

较紧密的木层颜色比没这么紧密的要深。

We call this variation the density differential.

我们把这种差异称为密度差。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
porous ['pɔ:rəs]

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adj. 可渗透的,多孔的

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replicate ['replikeit]

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v. 折叠,复制,模写 n. 同样的样品 adj. 转折

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varnish ['vɑ:niʃ]

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n. 油漆,掩饰,光泽面,指甲油 v. 粉饰,涂油漆于,

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protect [prə'tekt]

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vt. 保护,投保

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extraordinary [iks'trɔ:dnri]

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adj. 非凡的,特别的,特派的

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density ['densiti]

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n. 密集,密度,透明度

 
quality ['kwɔliti]

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n. 品质,特质,才能
adj. 高品质的

 
determined [di'tə:mind]

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adj. 坚毅的,下定决心的

 
differential [.difə'renʃəl]

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adj. 差别的,特定的,微分的 n. 两路线的运费差额

 
variation [.vɛəri'eiʃən]

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n. 变化,变动,变种,变奏曲

 


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