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托福TPO-27 Lecture 2(下)

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Variations in wood density affect vibrations, and therefore, sound.

密度差异性会影响振动,从而影响声音。

When scientists first analyzed the wood of the vintage Cremonese violins in compared with the modern violin wood, they calculated the average density and found no difference.

最初科学家在分析对比古老的克雷莫纳小提琴与现代琴的木材时,他们只算了平均密度,没有找到不同之处。

Later, other researchers measured the density differential and found a significant difference.

随后,别的研究人员测了密度差,发现了显著差异。

Modern violins had a greater variation, a larger differential.

现代小提琴的(密度)差更大。

Student: So you mean the density of the wood in the Cremonese violins is, is more uniform?

你是说,克雷莫纳小提琴木材密度更均一?

小提琴.jpg

Professor: Correct.

对。

Student: But Northern Italy isn't in the tropics.

但意大利北部不在热带啊。

Professor: No. But climate matters.

不。但气候很重要。

Turns out the Cremonese violins were made from trees that grew during a Little Ice Age, a period when temperatures across Europe were significantly lower than normal.

原来克雷莫纳小提琴所用木材取材于从小冰河期生长的树木,这期间欧洲的温度比平时明显得多。

So the trees grew more evenly throughout the year, making the density differential relatively small.

树木在这一年长得更慢,密度差相对就更小。

Student: But you said someone replicated the Cremonese wood.

但你刚刚说有人复制出克雷莫纳木材了。

Professor: The density differential was replicated.

(木材)密度差被复制出来了。

Student: What did they do? Try to simulate an Ice Age climate in their greenhouse and grow some trees in there?

他们做了什么?是在温室里模拟小冰河期种了一些树吗?

Professor: No, what happened was a material scientist figured out a way to process wood to make it acoustically similar to the Cremonese wood.

不,其实是一位材料学家发现了一个处理木头的方法,处理后其声学性质与克雷莫纳木材非常相似。

He basically exposed the wood to a species of fungus, uh, a mushroom.

他基本上就是让木头接触一种真菌,呃,一种蘑菇。

In the forest, fungi are decomposers. They break down dead wood.

在森林里,真菌是分解者,它们能分解枯木。

But this particular fungus nibbles away only at certain layers in the wood, leaving other layers alone.

但这种特殊的真菌仅仅蚕食木头中的某几层,别的它不管。

As a result, the density differential of the fungi-treated wood approach that of the Cremonese wood.

结果,木头经真菌处理后,其密度差与克雷莫纳木材就很接近了。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

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affect [ə'fekt]

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vt. 影响,作用,感动

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measured ['meʒəd]

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adj. 量过的,慎重的,基于标准的,有韵律的 动词me

 
uniform ['ju:nifɔ:m]

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n. 制服
adj. 一致的,统一的

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simulate ['simjuleit]

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vt. 假装,模仿

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exposed [iks'pəuzd]

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adj. 暴露的,无掩蔽的,暴露于风雨中的 v. 暴露,

 
fungus ['fʌŋgəs]

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n. 真菌,霉菌 (复数为funguses或fungi)

 
approach [ə'prəutʃ]

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n. 接近; 途径,方法
v. 靠近,接近,动

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evenly ['i:vənli]

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adv. 平衡地,平坦地,平等地

 
differential [.difə'renʃəl]

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adj. 差别的,特定的,微分的 n. 两路线的运费差额

 


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