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托福TPO-28 Lecture 1(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in a philosophy class.

听一段哲学课程。

Okay. So, uh, to continue our discussion…

好,我们继续讨论……

When philosophers talk about the basis of knowledge, they don't mean the source of information about any particular subject.

当哲学家在谈知识的基础时,他们不是指某个特定学科的信息来源。

They mean how we know what we know.

他们是指,我们是怎样知道我们所知的东西的。

Let's start with one philosophical view—foundationalism.

我们先讲一个哲学观——基础主义。

基础主义.jpg

Foundationalism is the view that our knowledge claims, what we think we know, that is, they need to have a base.

基础主义的观点是,我们的知识主张,即我们认为我们知道的事物,需要一个基础。

And think of knowledge as a house, you need a solid foundation on which to build your house.

把知识当作房子,你的房子要建在一个坚实的地基上。

And if you have a strong foundation, your house is more likely to be solid.

如果你有个坚实的基础,你的房子就可能比较坚固。

Well, foundationalists think the same thing is true of knowledge.

基础主义认为这也适用于知识层面。

If you have a solid base for your knowledge claims, then your knowledge structure is more likely to be strong, valid, true.

如果你的知识主张有个坚实基础,你的知识结构就很可能比较坚固,有效,真实。

First, you need some good foundational knowledge claims, and then the rest of the knowledge claims can be based on these.

首先,你要有基础的知识主张,剩余的知识主张立足于此。

Now, as to what kinds of knowledge claims are foundational....well, that's where this gets particularly interesting, it may sort of depends on which philosopher you ask.

至于什么样的知识主张才是基础性的,这就是特别有趣的地方,因为这得看你说的是哪个哲学家。

Take John Locke for instance.

例如约翰·洛克。

Locke's viewpoint essentially was that when humans are born, their minds are like blank slates, that is, we don't have any kind of knowledge when we are born.

洛克的观点基本上是,人刚出生时,他们的思想就像白板,即我们出生时是没有任何知识的。

We get our knowledge from our senses, you know, taste, touch, smell, sight, hearing.

我们通过感官获取知识,味觉、触觉、嗅觉、视觉和听觉。

So, when we look at the world, first as babies and then as we grow, that's where our knowledge comes from.

当我们观察世界,一开始作为婴儿,然后我们长大了,我们的知识就是这样来的。

Our senses, our experiences serve as the foundation for our knowledge.

我们的感官,我们的经验,都是知识的基础。

Now, for a very different view, let's turn to another philosopher—Rene Descartes.

来看看另一位哲学家——勒内·笛卡儿提出的不同观点。

Descartes thought that you have to go much deeper to find the foundations.

笛卡儿认为,要找到基础,你要更加深入。

He believed that our senses are not to be trusted, so he wanted to find a more solid foundation for knowledge.

他认为我们的感官是不可信的,所以他想找出一个更可靠的知识基础。

He began with what has come to be called methodological doubt.

他开始提出所谓的“怀疑方法论”。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
philosophical [.filə'sɔfikəl]

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adj. 哲学的,冷静的,哲学上的

 
particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

联想记忆
foundation [faun'deiʃən]

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n. 基础,根据,建立
n. 粉底霜,基

联想记忆
essentially [i'senʃəli]

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adv. 本质上,本来

 
source [sɔ:s]

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n. 发源地,来源,原始资料

 
base [beis]

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n. 基底,基础,底部,基线,基数,(棒球)垒,[化]碱

 

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