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托福TPO-28 Lecture 2(中)

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Corvids include ravens, jays, crows and magpies among others.

鸦类包括渡鸦、松鸦、乌鸦和喜鹊等。

And what kinds of cognitive abilities are we talking about?

我们说的是什么样的认知能力呢?

Well, corvids and some mammals have the ability to plan for the future, to store food for instance, in places where they can find it later.

鸦类和一些哺乳动物有为未来谋划的能力,比如说把食物储存在它们以后能找得到的地方。

It's been suggested in fact that jays, corvids known for stealing each other's food, may hide their food precisely because they are projecting their own tendency to steal onto other jays.

事实上有人认为,松鸦(一种以互相偷窃食物为人们所知的鸦)可能会把食物藏起来,原因正是它们把自己偷窃的可能性投射到其它松鸦上了。

动物行为.jpg

So let's talk about a study recently conducted with magpies.

来看看最近一个关于喜鹊的研究。

As I said, magpies are corvids.

正如我所说的,喜鹊属鸦类。

And because corvids have these other cognitive skills, researchers wanted to see if they were also capable of mirror self-recognition.

因为鸦类具有其它的认知技能,研究人员想知道鸦类是否具有镜像自我认知能力。

So they gave them the mirror mark test, placing yellow sticker on the birds' black throat feathers.

所以他们给喜鹊做了镜像标记测试,给鸟喉咙上的黑色羽毛贴了黄色标签。

At first, the magpies all engage in the same social behaviors that other animals do—looking behind the mirror, etc.

一开始,喜鹊表现的行为和别的动物没什么两样——看镜子后面等等。

But eventually, some of the birds, while looking in the mirror, kept scratching at the mark until they got rid of it.

但最后,其中一些鸟在看着镜子的同时,不断地抓挠标记,直到它们把标记弄掉。

And they didn't scratch at it when there was no mirror around. So they passed the test.

在没有镜子的时候,它们不抓标记。它们通过了测试。

Wow! Do any other birds have this ability?

哇!其它鸟也有这种能力吗?

Well, not that we know of.

据我们所知,没有。

There was a study using pigeons, where researchers attempted to reduce MSR to a matter of conditioning, that is, they claimed that the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror could be learned.

有个研究用了鸽子,研究人员试图把镜像自我认知降低为条件作用的一种,即他们声称在镜子中认出自己的能力是可以习得的。

So these researchers basically trained some pigeons to pass the mirror mark test.

所以这些研究人员基本上就是训练鸽子以通过镜像标记测试。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
tendency ['tendənsi]

想一想再看

n. 趋势,倾向

联想记忆
recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

想一想再看

vt. 认出,认可,承认,意识到,表示感激

 
cognitive ['kɔgnitiv]

想一想再看

adj. 认知的,认识的,有认识力的

 
capable ['keipəbl]

想一想再看

adj. 有能力的,足以胜任的,有 ... 倾向的

 
eventually [i'ventjuəli]

想一想再看

adv. 终于,最后

 
social ['səuʃəl]

想一想再看

adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
engage [in'geidʒ]

想一想再看

v. 答应,预定,使忙碌,雇佣,订婚

 

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