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托福TPO-28 Lecture 2(下)

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But two things are noteworthy here.

但有两点值得注意。

One, no one's ever replicated the study.

第一,没人复制过这个研究。

But more importantly, it misses the point.

但更重要的是,这个研究没找到重点。

The issue isn't whether some behavior can be learned.

问题不在于某些行为是否可以习得。

It's whether a species has developed this ability spontaneously.

而是一种生物能否自发地发展处这种能力。

So what does the test tell us about corvids or chimpanzees?

所以鸦鸟或黑猩猩的测试告诉了我们什么?

动物行为1.jpg

Good question.

问得好。

For one thing, it is important because it sets animals with a sense of self apart from those without a sense of self.

一方面,这很重要,因为这能把具有自我意识的动物和不具自我意识的动物区分开。

But more importantly, many researchers believe that MSR is indicative of other advanced cognitive abilities.

但更重要的是,很多研究者认为,镜像自我认知是其它高级认知能力的表现。

Self-awareness, even in its earliest stages, might entail an awareness of others, the ability to see their perspective, to look at the world from another's point of view.

自我意识,哪怕是在最早期的阶段,也可能会引发对别人的感知,即知道别的视角的能力,能从别人的角度看世界。

This is crucial, because it implies a high level of cognitive development.

这至关重要,因为这代表了更高级的认知发展。

It's perhaps the first stage toward the development of empathy.

这也许是发展出移情作用的第一步。

But birds' brains are so small compared to primates.

但比起灵长类,鸟类的脑袋非常小。

True. Though corvids do have unusually large brains for birds.

对,尽管作为鸟类,鸦类的脑袋大得有些不寻常了。

But size isn't the whole story.

但尺寸不是全部。

It's thought that primates are so intelligent because of a certain part of their brains, which birds simply don't have.

人们认为灵长类之所以这么聪明的原因是头脑的某个特定部分,鸟类则不具备这部分。

But there is an area in birds' brains that researchers believe governs similar cognitive functions.

但鸟类脑部确实有一个区域,研究人员认为这个区域支配着相似的认知功能。

So primates and birds' brains have evolved along different tracks, but ended up with similar abilities.

所以,灵长类和鸟类的脑部以不同的方式进化着,但最后(进化出来的)能力是相似的。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
intelligent [in'telidʒənt]

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adj. 聪明的,智能的

 
advanced [əd'vɑ:nst]

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adj. 高级的,先进的

 
awareness [ə'wɛənis]

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n. 认识,意识,了解

联想记忆
cognitive ['kɔgnitiv]

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adj. 认知的,认识的,有认识力的

 
noteworthy ['nəut.wə:ði]

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adj. 值得注意的

 
empathy ['empəθi]

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n. 移情作用,共鸣,执着投入

联想记忆
tracks

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n. 轨道(track的复数);磁道;轮胎

 
spontaneously [spɔn'teiniəsli]

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adv. 自发地,自生地,自然产生地

 
issue ['iʃju:]

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n. 发行物,期刊号,争论点
vi. & vt

 
perspective [pə'spektiv]

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n. 远景,看法,透视
adj. 透视的

联想记忆

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