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托福TPO-30 Lecture 1(下)

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But there was a problem.

但有个问题。

Other researchers protested that the... the opt-out response was simply a learned or conditioned response.

其他的研究人员提出抗议,认为这个选择跳过的反应只是一种习得反应,或条件反应。

You remember intro to psychology, right?

你们还记得心理学概论对吧?

In other words, by pressing the pass paddle, the dolphin avoided having to wait and hasten the possibility of a food reward by moving directly to the next trial.

换句话说,通过按下“跳过”踏板,海豚避免了等待,还能增加得到食物奖励的可能性,因为它能直接进入下一次测试。

动物行为认知.jpg

So the experiment didn't necessarily indicate that the dolphin had knowledge of its own uncertainty, just that it wanted to avoid negative consequences.

所以这个实验不一定证明了海豚知道自己的不确定,只知道海豚想避免消极后果罢了。

So more recently, our researcher and his colleagues devised a new study, this time using monkeys.

最近研究人员和他的同事设计了一个新的研究,这次他们用猴子(做实验)。

In this experiment, the monkeys had to identify certain patterns displayed on a computer screen.

在这个试验中,猴子需要辨别电脑屏幕上显示的不同图案。

These patterns were analogous to the tones used in the dolphin study.

这些图案的作用类似于海豚研究中用到的音调。

One type of pattern was of a specific density and was to be classified as dense, while the second type of pattern could vary in density, but was always less dense than the first one.

一种图案具有特定的密集度,被归为“密集”类,另一类图案的密集程度不同,但都比前一种的密集程度低。

And the monkeys' task was to identify this second type as sparse.

猴子要做的就是认出第二类是“稀疏的”。

So the denser the second type of pattern was, the more difficult the task became.

所以第二类图案的密集程度越高,任务的难度越高。

And as in a previous study, the monkeys were given a third choice that would allow them to pass on to a new trial.

正如之前的研究一样,猴子们也有第三种选择,它们能跳过(这一轮)到下一次测试。

But unlike in the dolphin experiment, the monkeys had to complete four trials before they got any feedback.

但和海豚实验不同的是,猴子要完成4个测试后才会得到反馈。

They didn't know if they responded correctly or incorrectly after each trial because there was no reward or punishment.

它们不知道自己回答得是否正确,因为实验中没有奖励也没有惩罚。

At the end of four trials, feedback was given.

4次测试结束后,才有反馈。

The monkeys received a food reward for each correct response, and a time-out during which a buzzer was sounded for each incorrect response.

猴子们在每次作答正确后会得到食物奖励,错误则要被暂停作答,暂停期间会有蜂鸣器响起。

But the monkeys had no way to tell which reward or punishment was associated with which response.

但猴子们无法得知哪个奖励或惩罚是对应哪次回答的。

And they didn't get either reward or punishment for choosing the pass option, the…um…the uncertainty response.

它们选择“跳过”——不确定回答的话,既没有奖励也没有惩罚。

But nevertheless they still chose this option in the appropriate circumstances when the trial was particularly difficult.

但无论如何,在测试特别难的时候,它们仍然会在合适的情况下选择这一项。

And this is evidence that it wasn't a conditioned response, because that response didn't guarantee a faster reward.

这就证明了这种行为不是条件反应,因为这种反应不能保证更快的回报。

So what does all this tell us about animal consciousness or animals' awareness of themselves and their state of mind?

就动物自我意识即动物对心理活动的意识方面而言,这些都告诉了我们什么呢?

Can we really know what's going on in the minds of animals?

我们真的能知道动物脑子里都在想什么吗?

No. Of course not.

不。当然不能。

But exploring the metacognitive capacity of animals could become an important criterion in highlighting the similarities and differences between human and animal minds.

但对动物元认知能力的探索也许能成为一条重要的标准,以强调人类思维和动物思维的异同之处。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
option ['ɔpʃən]

想一想再看

n. 选择权,可选物,优先购买权
v. 给予选

联想记忆
specific [spi'sifik]

想一想再看

adj. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的
n. 特

联想记忆
avoid [ə'vɔid]

想一想再看

vt. 避免,逃避

联想记忆
negative ['negətiv]

想一想再看

adj. 否定的,负的,消极的
n. 底片,负

联想记忆
pressing [presiŋ]

想一想再看

adj. 紧迫的,紧急的 press的现在分词

联想记忆
nevertheless [.nevəðə'les]

想一想再看

adv. 仍然,不过
conj. 然而,不过

 
uncertainty [ʌn'sə:tnti]

想一想再看

n. 不确定,不可靠,半信半疑 (学术)不可信度; 偏差

 
vary ['vɛəri]

想一想再看

v. 变化,改变,使多样化

 
previous ['pri:vjəs]

想一想再看

adj. 在 ... 之前,先,前,以前的

联想记忆
trial ['traiəl]

想一想再看

adj. 尝试性的; 审讯的
n. 尝试,努力

 

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