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托福TPO-30 Lecture 2(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in a paleontology class.

听一段古生物学课程。

As we've discussed, birds are apparently descendants of dinosaurs and shared many commonalities with some dinosaur species, like...um... feathers and maybe even flight and of course egg laid.

正如我们讲过的,很明显,鸟类是恐龙的后代,而且鸟类与一些恐龙有很多共性,比如......羽毛、迁徙行为和产卵行为。

OK. So, many paleontologists, myself included, have wondered about other similarities between dinosaurs and birds.

很多古生物学家都很好奇(包括我自己),恐龙和鸟类之间有没有别的相似之处。

Since adult dinosaur fossils have sometimes been discovered near or on top of nests, we've been looking at the dinosaur parenting behavior.

由于一些成年恐龙的化石有时是在恐龙巢旁或巢上发现的,我们开始研究恐龙的育儿行为。

恐龙蛋.jpg

Parenting behavior, well, that sounds so gentle and caring.

育儿行为,听起来很温柔,充满爱意。

But dinosaurs were ferocious reptiles and reptiles don't take care of their young, do they?

但恐龙是非常凶残的爬行动物,爬行动物是不会照顾幼崽的,对吧?

Well, some reptiles incubate their eggs, crocodiles do.

一些爬行动物也会孵化它们的蛋,比如鳄鱼。

And as for popular attitudes towards dinosaurs...well, take the Oviraptor for instance.

人们对恐龙持的普遍观点......拿窃蛋龙举例吧。

In the 1920s, a paleontologist discovered the fossil remains of a small dinosaur near a nest containing eggs.

在20世纪20年代,一位古生物学家在一个有蛋的巢旁发现了一只小型恐龙的化石。

He assumed the dinosaur was stealing the eggs, so he named it Oviraptor that means egg thief in Latin, which fueled the generally negative public image of such dinosaurs.

他认为这只恐龙是在偷蛋,所以他将其命名为“窃蛋龙”,在拉丁语中表示偷蛋贼,这进一步恶化了这些恐龙在人们心目中的负面形象。

But by the 1990s, other experts had convincingly made the case that instead of robbing the nest, the Oviraptor was probably taking care of the eggs.

但直到20世纪90年代,其他专家提出了令人信服的解释,认为这只窃蛋龙非但不是在洗劫这个窝巢,它很可能是在照顾这些蛋。

You see, dinosaurs' closest living relatives—birds and crocodiles—display nesting behavior.

恐龙最亲近的近亲——鸟类和鳄鱼——都表现出了筑巢行为。

And dinosaur fossils have been found in postures that we now believe to indicate brooding behavior, that is, sitting on the eggs until they hatch.

且人们也发现了一些恐龙化石,我们现在认为其化石的“姿势”显示出恐龙的孵卵行为,也就是坐在蛋上直到蛋孵化。

So we are curious about the type of care dinosaurs gave to their young.

我们很好奇,恐龙会怎样照顾它们的幼儿。

And we'd like to figure out which dinosaur parent, the male or the female gave the care.

我们也很想弄清楚,恐龙父母中是哪一方,雄性或雌性,来照顾幼儿的。

Shouldn't the behavior of crocodiles and birds give us some clues then?

难道鳄鱼和鸟类的行为没给我们点提示吗?

Well, with crocodiles, it is the female who guards the nest, and with birds, it depends on the species, it can be the male or the female that takes care the eggs, or both.

就鳄鱼来说,是雌性鳄鱼守护窝巢,鸟类则取决于什么物种,可能是雄性或雌性来照顾自己的蛋,或双方一起。

In over 90 percent of all bird species, both parents take care of the eggs and the young birds.

所有鸟类中,超过九成都是父母双方一同照顾鸟蛋和幼鸟。

But sometimes it's just the male?

但有时候只是雄鸟?

Well, exclusive care by the male parent is much less common, but it does occur.

仅来自父方的独有照料比较少见,但也是存在的。

Now, for animals other than birds, the care of young by both parents is pretty unusual in the animal kingdom.

对于鸟类以外的动物来说,父母双方都照顾孩子在动物界很罕见的。

Males contribute to parental care in fewer than five percent of all mammalian species.

父方会抚育孩子的物种在所有哺乳类动物中不到百分之五。

It's even less frequent among reptiles.

这比爬行动物要少得多。

And exclusive care by the male is very rare.

仅由父方照料孩子时非常罕见的。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
gentle ['dʒentl]

想一想再看

adj. 温和的,轻柔的,文雅的,温顺的,出身名门的

 
frequent ['fri:kwənt]

想一想再看

adj. 经常的,频繁的
vt. 常到,常去

 
figure ['figə]

想一想再看

n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
v

联想记忆
contribute [kən'tribju:t]

想一想再看

vt. 捐助,投稿
vi. 投稿,贡献,是原因

联想记忆
display [di'splei]

想一想再看

n. 显示,陈列,炫耀
vt. 显示,表现,夸

 
incubate ['inkjubeit]

想一想再看

v. 孵,培养

联想记忆
flight [flait]

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n. 飞行,航班
n. 奇思妙想,一段楼

 
indicate ['indikeit]

想一想再看

v. 显示,象征,指示
v. 指明,表明

联想记忆
hatch [hætʃ]

想一想再看

n. 孵化,舱口
vt. 孵,孵出

 
assumed [ə'sju:md]

想一想再看

adj. 假装的;假定的

 

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