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托福TPO-30 Lecture 3(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class.

听一段天文学课程。

There's been a lot of talk recently about life on Mars, at the level of microorganisms anyway, mainly because of a few important discoveries and inventions.

最近人们经常谈论火星上的生命(微生物层次),主要原因是一些重要的发现和发明。

For example, one major discovery was that at one point water was present on Mars.

比如,一个重大发现是火星上有水。

How do we know?

我们是怎么知道的?

Well, in 2004, an exploration robot discovered jarosite there.

2004年,一个探索型机器人在火星上发现了黄钾铁矾。

Jarosite is a yellowish brown mineral with a crystalline structure that's also found on Earth.

黄钾铁矾是一种黄棕色的矿物质,其晶体结构在地球上也有(相同的结构)。

火星上有水.jpg

It contains iron, potassium and hydroxide.

其中有铁、钾和氢氧化物。

The interesting thing is that on Earth at least it needs highly acidic water to form.

有趣的是,在地球上,需要酸性很强的水才能形成这种结构。

So we've got water or had it at one point.

所以我们有水,或一度曾有水。

And since most planetary scientists believe that water is essential to life, the presence of jarosite means that one prerequisite for life was once present on Mars.

且由于大多数行星科学家都相信,水是生命之源,有黄钾铁矾说明火星曾具备生命的先决条件。

But there's another thing about jarosite.

但黄钾铁矾还有另一方面。

One step in its formation on Earth involves microorganisms; they actually speed up the formation of jarosite dramatically.

在地球上,形成黄钾铁矾的其中一个步骤要有微生物参与;实际上,微生物能大幅加快黄钾铁矾的形成。

Now, theoretically it is possible for jarosite to form without the help of biological life forms.

理论上,在没有生物生命形式的帮助下,形成黄钾铁矾也是有可能的。

But we don't really know for sure if this happens 'cause… well, because every corner of Earth has some form of biological life.

但我们并不肯定这会不会发生,因为……因为地球上的每个角落都有生物生命。

But jarosite on Earth incorporates all kinds of microorganisms into its crystalline structure.

但地球上的黄钾铁矾,其晶体结构中包含了各种各样的微生物。

So it's possible that if the jarosite on Mars was also formed with the help of microorganisms, we might be able to detect remnants of them in the samples we find.

所以,假如火星上的黄钾铁矾也是在微生物的帮助下形成的,我们也许能在找到的样本中检测到残余物,这不是没有可能的事。

And we have instruments now that will enable us to try to do this.

我们现在有设备,能帮助我们做这件事。

For example, there's a new instrument called the micro-fabricated organic analyzer, or M.O.A.

比如,现在有一种新型设备,叫微加工有机分析仪,又称M.O.A.

The organic analyzer is an amazing tool.

这个有机分析仪是个很棒的工具。

It will be able to collect soil samples and analyze them right there on Mars, pure, untouched samples.

它能直接在火星上采集土壤样本并进行分析,样本是纯净的,原封未动的。

It will let us eliminate the risk we would take of contaminating the samples if they were brought back to Earth.

如果把样本带回地球,就有污染样本的风险,但分析仪就能排除风险。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
eliminate [i'limineit]

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v. 除去,剔除; 忽略

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essential [i'senʃəl]

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n. 要素,要点
adj. 必要的,重要的,本

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instrument ['instrumənt]

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n. 乐器,工具,仪器,器械

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presence ['prezns]

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n. 出席,到场,存在
n. 仪态,风度

 
prerequisite ['pri:'rekwizit]

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n. 先决条件 adj. 作为前提的,必备的

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exploration [.eksplɔ:'reiʃən]

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n. 探险,踏勘,探测

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mineral ['minərəl]

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adj. 矿物的
n. 矿物,矿石

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collect [kə'lekt]

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v. 收集,聚集
v. 推论

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astronomy [əst'rɔnəmi]

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n. 天文学

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formation [fɔ:'meiʃən]

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n. 构造,编队,形成,队形,[地]地层

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