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托福TPO-33 Lecture 1(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.

听一段节选自考古学课堂的讲座。

Professor: The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt might be the most famous building in the world.

教授:埃及吉萨金字塔也许是世界上最著名的建筑。

We know exactly when it was built.

我们知道建造它的确切时间。

Construction started in 2547 B.C.E., about 4500 years ago.

始建于公元前2547年,约4500年前。

We know who had it built.

我们知道是谁建造了它。

That was the pharaoh Khufu.

胡夫法老。

And we know who oversaw its construction—the pharaoh's brother.

而且我们知道谁监督着它的建设——法老的兄弟。

金字塔.jpg

We know so many things about it, but the funny thing is: we still don't know exactly how it was built.

我们知道关于它的很多事情,但有趣的是我们仍不知道它到底是怎么建造的。

This picture will give you an idea of the size of the Pyramid and the size of the blocks it's made out of.

这张照片给你介绍了金字塔与建成金字塔的方砖大小。

About two million stone blocks were used to build the Great Pyramid and they are incredibly massive.

建造大金字塔用了约200万石块,而且它们极其庞大。

The average weight is two and a half tons.

平均重量是2.5吨。

The problem that has puzzled scholars for centuries is how were these blocks lifted up the height of this massive structure and then fit into place and without the benefit of modern technology.

几个世纪让学者们困惑的问题是在不利用现代科技的情况下,这些砖块是如何举到这个大型建筑物的高度,然后放到恰当的位置。

Of course, there've been a lot of theories over the centuries.

当然几个世纪以来有很多理论存在。

The oldest recorded one is by the Greek historian Herodotus.

最古老的记录是来自希腊的历史学家希罗多德。

He visited Egypt around 450 B.C.E. , when the Pyramid was already 2000 years old.

他在大约公元前450年参观过埃及,这时金字塔已经建造了2000年之久。

His theory was that cranes were used, much like we use cranes today to construct tall buildings.

他的理论是用到了起重机,就像我们今天用起重机建造高楼一样。

And Herodotus may have seen Egyptians using cranes made of wood.

希罗多德也许看到埃及人用木制的起重机。

But the problem with this theory has to do with simple mechanics.

但这个理论的问题是与简单的力学有关。

A crane needs a wide and sturdy base to stand on or it will fall over.

一个起重机需要广而结实的底座支撑,否则它将会倒塌。

Well, as you get toward the top of the Pyramid, there's really no place for a crane to stand.

当你到金字塔的顶端时,那里确实没有地方留给起重机。

The stone blocks are too narrow to provide a base.

石块太窄无法为底座让位。

Well, so much for that theory.

那么,这个理论就讲到这里。

The next one has to do with the use of a ramp that would allow workers to drag a stone block up the side of the structure.

下一个与坡道使用有关,它允许工人从建筑的一侧将石块拉上去。

Of course the ramp can't be too steep.

当然坡道不能太陡。

It has to have a long gentle slope. And that's the problem.

它应该有一个长长的缓坡,而这就是问题。

If you build a ramp with a slight slope up to the top of a Pyramid that's over 130 meters high, it would have to be almost two kilometers long.

如果你要建造一个抵达金字塔顶130多米高的缓坡坡道,那么它几乎是两公里长。

Well, the Pyramid is built on a flat area called the Giza Plateau.

金字塔建在吉萨平原,这个平坦的地区。

The Plateau is simply not big enough to accommodate a two-kilometer-long ramp.

这个平原没有足够大的地方容纳一个两公里长的坡道。

OK. So what now?

好的。那么现在怎样?

Well, if you've ever driven on a mountain road, you'd know that it has a lot of twists and turns and bends in it because that's how engineers keep the road from having to be too steep.

如果你曾在山路上开过车,你会知道山路上有很多迂回曲折的弯路,因为工程师以此防止道路过陡。

So why not wrap the ramp around the Pyramid?

那么为什么不用坡道环绕在金字塔周围?

Building the ramp around it as you go.

按照你想的在它的周围建造坡道。

Sounds like a pretty good idea.

听起来是个好主意。

Except it's got a serious problem.

除了有一个严重的问题。

See...one of the most remarkable things about the Great Pyramid is how accurate the proportions are.

你看……大金字塔最为非凡的一件事是它的比例十分精确。

The dimensions are almost perfect.

尺寸几乎完美。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
benefit ['benifit]

想一想再看

n. 利益,津贴,保险金,义卖,义演
vt.

联想记忆
block [blɔk]

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n. 街区,木块,石块
n. 阻塞(物), 障

 
base [beis]

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n. 基底,基础,底部,基线,基数,(棒球)垒,[化]碱

 
archaeology [.ɑ:ki'ɔlədʒi]

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n. 考古学,古迹,文物

联想记忆
construct [kən'strʌkt]

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vt. 构筑,建造
n. 构想

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massive ['mæsiv]

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adj. 巨大的,大规模的,大量的,大范围的

 
slight [slait]

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adj. 轻微的,微小的,纤细的,脆弱的
vt

 
puzzled

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adj. 困惑的;搞糊涂的;茫然的

 
construction [kən'strʌkʃən]

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n. 建设,建造,结构,构造,建筑物

联想记忆
sturdy ['stə:di]

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adj. 强健的,健全的

联想记忆


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