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托福TPO-34 Lecture 1(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

听一段艺术史课程。

Professor: All right.

教授:好了。

So last week we started talking about the painters and sculptors who were part of the art movement called Dada.

我们上周开始讲了被称为“达达主义”的艺术运动中的一些画家和雕塑家。

But I don't want you to think the ideas we introduced last time were limited to painting, sculpture, that sort of thing.

但我不希望你们觉得我们上周讲的内容仅限于绘画、雕塑,诸如此类。

So today I want to move beyond the visual arts and talk a bit about Dada in the performing arts, in theater.

所以今天我想跨出视觉艺术的范围,讲一下表演艺术里(剧院里)的达达主义。

But let's start by reviewing what Dada is. OK?

先回顾一下什么是达达主义,好吗?

As you will recall, Dada began in Switzerland, in the city of Zurich, in 1916.

正如你们记得的,达达主义起源于1916年,在瑞士的苏黎世市。

The artists who studied it were reacting against traditional notions of beauty, of reason, of progress, which had been standards of western thought since the 18th century.

这些研究达达主义的艺术家反对关于美、理性和进步的传统观点,这些自18世纪以来都是西方思想中的(艺术)标准。

They looked around.

他们将目光投向别处。

达达主义.jpg

And well, I mean, the First World War was raging, so they didn't see much beauty, reason or progress in the world.

而且,我的意思是,当时一战正处于战火纷飞之时,所以他们也没在这世界上看到多少美好、理性或进步。

Instead, they saw a world that was chaotic, random, a world that didn't make sense.

相反,他们看到的世界混乱不堪,充满变数,整个世界一点都不合理。

And if that's the way the world was, well, they wanted their art to reflect that.

如果这就是世界,他们想要自己的艺术将之反映出来。

So let's... let's review a couple of key ideas that were the backbone of Dada art.

让我们回顾一下一些主要的观点,是达达主义的中心。

First, the Dadaists wanted to completely reject the classical idea of art.

首先,达达主义者希望能彻底摒弃艺术的传统观点。

Classical ideas like proportion, balance... all the things you think about when you think about great art.

这些传统观点包括比例、平衡……所有你在想伟大艺术时能想到的东西。

Great art involved reason, the logic, the beauty that the Dadaists wanted to overthrow.

伟大的艺术包括理性,逻辑与美,而这些正是达达主义者想要摒弃的。

So, well, you know, to a Dadaist, classical artwork was a reflection of outdated thinking!

你明白的,对于达达主义者来说,古典艺术作品是思想过时的表现。

That's why Dadaists created sculptures like the ones we saw last week.

这就是为什么达达主义者创造出我们上周看到的那种雕塑。

Remember the stool with the bicycle wheel mounted on top?

记得顶上装了自行车轮的凳子吗?

I wouldn't exactly called that beautiful, would you?

我不会说那很美,你们会吗?

But of course it wasn't meant to be.

但当然了,那并不是为了美观。

That was the point!

这是关键!

OK. So another key Dada idea we talked about was the embracing of randomness. Right?

好了。另一种我们说的重要达达主义思想是欣然接受偶然性,对吗?

Uh... if life is random, said the Dadaists, why would we make art that has order and logic?

如果正如达达主义者所言,生活充满偶然,为什么我们要创造有秩序有逻辑的艺术?

And so we have that collage we looked at, with an artist took different, you know, cut-out squares of colored paper, threw them onto the canvas, and wherever they landed, that was the composition of the work!

所以我们就有了我们所见的拼贴画——一位艺术家拿了各种剪成方形的彩纸片,把它们扔到画布上,它们的落点就构成了一幅画。

Another favorite of the Dadaists was something called chance poetry.

达达主义者的另一项最爱是叫随机诗歌的东西。

A chance poet would pull words out of a hat and that would be... that would make up the poem!

随机诗人会从帽子里抽取单词,这……这就成了一首诗!

And this idea of chance and randomness was a key element of Dadaism because the whole world seemed so random to them.

而这种随机性和偶然性的思想是达达主义的重要元素,因为对她们来说,整个世界都充满随机性。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
sculpture ['skʌlptʃə]

想一想再看

n. 雕塑
vt. 雕刻,雕塑
vi

 
logic ['lɔdʒik]

想一想再看

n. 逻辑,逻辑学,条理性,推理

联想记忆
randomness

想一想再看

n. 随意;无安排;不可测性

 
collage [kə'lɑ:ʒ]

想一想再看

n. 抽象派美术

联想记忆
wheel [wi:l]

想一想再看

n. 轮子,车轮,方向盘,周期,旋转
vi.

 
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

想一想再看

adj. 传统的

 
chaotic [kei'ɔtik]

想一想再看

adj. 混乱的

联想记忆
proportion [prə'pɔ:ʃən]

想一想再看

n. 比例,均衡,部份,(复)体积,规模
vt

联想记忆
limited ['limitid]

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adj. 有限的,被限制的
动词limit的过

 
element ['elimənt]

想一想再看

n. 元素,成分,组成部分,(复数)恶劣天气

 

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