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托福TPO-34 Lecture 3(上)

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Listen to part of a lecture in a botany class.

听一段植物学课程。

Professor: When we talk about pollination ecology, we are talking about the relationship between a plant and its pollinator.

教授:当我们提到授粉生态学,我们谈论的是植物和传粉者之间的关系。

From the plants' perspective, the ideal pollinator is an animal that is under-fed, ready to eat and in a hurry.

从植物的角度来说,理想的传粉者是一种饥饿的动物,准备好饱餐一顿,而且时间不多。

The pollinator, on the other hand, wants to remain well-fed with as little effort as possible.

而另一方面,传粉者希望维持在费尽可能少的力气吃饱的状态。

These factors help drive the evolution of plants and their pollinators, both of which depend on this balanced and delicate relationship.

这些因素有助于推动植物和传粉者的进化,两者都取决于这种平衡且微妙的关系。

花粉传播.jpg

Sometimes only certain insects or birds can pollinate certain plant species.

有时候,只有某些昆虫或鸟类才能给某些植物传粉。

So to really understand pollination ecology, both the flower and its pollinators must be studied.

要想真正了解授粉生物学,花朵和传粉者都要研究,缺一不可。

Let's start with flowers.

我们先讲花。

There are several important factors associated with pollination: when and how often a plan flowers, how long the flowering cycle lasts, and the number of flowers that open at the same time.

和传粉息息相关的重要因素有好几个:植物开花的时间和频率、花期有多长、同时开花的花朵数量。

For example, flowering may coincide with the migration of a certain animal species that pollinates the plant, or producing many flowers at once may increase the number of pollinators a plant attracts.

举个例子,植物开花可能正好赶在某种为之传粉的动物迁徙的时候,或者,一次性开很多朵花也可能会吸引到更多的传粉者。

Other characteristics of flowers are also important.

花朵的其它特性也很重要。

Features such as color, scent and shape attract pollinators, as does the reward in the flower, the pollen or the nectar, that feeds the pollinator.

例如像是颜色、香味和形状等能吸引传粉者的特质,还有藏在花朵里的奖励,花粉或花蜜,给传粉者提供食物。

For example, flowers that attract bats tend to be green or cream-colored, because visibility is important.

譬如,吸引蝙蝠的花朵通常是绿色或奶油色的,因为可见度很重要。

Bats are practically blind, remember.

记住,蝙蝠基本上是瞎的。

And these flowers bloom at night when bats are active.

这些花在晚上盛开,这时候蝙蝠很活跃。

Now, there's a flower in the Amazon rainforest called a royal water lily and the characteristics of its flowers change during the pollination process.

在亚马逊森林有一种花叫王莲,它的花朵特性在传粉期间会发生改变。

The royal water lily uses color, temperature and scent to attract the beetles that pollinate it.

王莲以颜色、温度和香味来吸引甲虫为之传粉。

When the flowers of the royal water lily first open up, when they first bloom, they are white.

当王莲最初开花时,花是白色的。

They also emit a strong odor and their temperature rises.

花朵还会散发出强烈的香气,温度也会上升。

Producing heat serves two purposes.

制造热量有两个目的。

It magnifies the scent of the flower and it helps the beetles maintain their body temperature.

它(制造热量)能把花朵香气变得更浓烈,也有助于甲虫维持体温。

When a beetle arrives at the flower, the flower closes around it for about 24 hours so that the beetle becomes covered with pollen.

当一只甲虫落到花朵上时,该花朵会闭合24小时,就能让甲虫身上覆满花粉了。

Then when the flower opens, its color changes to red and it cools down.

接着当花朵打开时,颜色就会变为红色,温度下降。

When the beetle flies out, it carries the pollen to a different, heated, white, fragrant flower.

甲虫飞出来时,它会把花粉带到另一朵温度较高的、白色的芬芳的花朵上去。

As you can see, plants go to a lot of trouble to attract attention.

正如你所见,植物花费不少精力来吸引(传粉者)注意。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
fragrant ['freigrənt]

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adj. 芬香的,馥郁的

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lily ['lili]

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adj. 纯白的 n. 百合花

 
coincide [.kəuin'said]

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vi. 同时发生,符合,一致

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emit [i'mit]

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vt. 发出,放射,吐露

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understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

 
perspective [pə'spektiv]

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n. 远景,看法,透视
adj. 透视的

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evolution [.i:və'lu:ʃən]

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n. 进化,发展,演变

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delicate ['delikit]

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n. 精美的东西
adj. 精美的,微妙的,美

 
ecology [i:'kɔlədʒi]

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n. 生态学

 
tend [tend]

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v. 趋向,易于,照料,护理

 

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