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托福TPO-41 Lecture 3-3

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It maybe that a master signing a work was simply making a declaration that the work met the standards of the shop.

大师在一个作品上签名也许只是在声明这件作品达到了工作室的标准。
And it wasn’t just painters. Sculptors also worked together.
不仅是画家,雕塑家也会一起合作。
In fact, assistants were even more necessary if you were a master sculptor because statues take longer to make than paintings.
事实上,如果你是一位雕塑大师,你可能更需要助手,因为做雕塑花的时间比画画长。
And the master had to arrange for marble to be quarried, things like that.
大师必须安排人去采大理石,诸如此类。
Perhaps the most collaborative of all was architecture.
可能合作性最强的是建筑。
There we see a real division of labor, but with carpenters, masons, unskilled labor just to carry materials to and fro, and so on.
在那儿我们能看到一个真正的分工合作,不过是木匠、泥瓦匠和没有技术的劳工把材料搬来搬去等等。
Plus, of course, your skilled artisans who carried out the master architect’s design.
当然了,还有技术娴熟的工匠把大师的建筑设计变成现实。
Think of it, like, um, a ballet, you know. All the dancers work together.
可以把它想成芭蕾,所有的舞者都在一起合作。
There’s a division of labor. People have different roles.
他们之间有分工,每个人都有不同的角色。
And in order for the thing to come together, everyone needs to be aware of what others are doing and coordinate their work and have good timing.
为了把这件事整合起来,每个人需要知道其他人在做什么,并且协调他们的工作,掌握好时机。
So for architecture, it’s almost impossible to know who was responsible for any given detail.
那么就建筑而言,几乎不可能弄清楚谁负责哪个具体的细节。
Was it the master architect? The mason? An assistant mason?
是建筑大师、泥瓦匠还是助理泥瓦匠?
Maybe it was even the patron, the client who was paying for the art.
也许甚至是主顾,这个付钱买下这件艺术品的客户。
Remember, it wasn’t yet customary for architects to give their assistants measured drawings to work from.
记住,那时候建筑设计师给他们的助手标准的图来实施工作还没成为习惯。
Instructions were given orally, not in writing.
指令都是口头给出的,不是书面的。
So we don’t have those documents to tell us what exactly the master architect’s plans were.
所以我们没有那些文件能告诉我们建筑大师具体的计划是什么。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
measured ['meʒəd]

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adj. 量过的,慎重的,基于标准的,有韵律的 动词me

 
ballet ['bælei]

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n. 芭蕾舞

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coordinate [kəu'ɔ:dneit,kəu'ɔ:dnit]

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n. 同等的人物; (色调,图案,样式等)配套服装

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fro [frəu]

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adv. 向那边,向后,离开,回来

 
arrange [ə'reindʒ]

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vt. 安排,整理,计划,改编(乐曲)
vi.

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collaborative

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adj. 合作的,协作的

 
architect ['ɑ:kitekt]

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n. 建筑师

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declaration [.deklə'reiʃən]

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n. 宣布,宣言

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mason ['meisn]

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n. 泥瓦匠 Mason: 共济会会员

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patron ['peitrən]

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n. 赞助人,保护人,老主顾

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