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经济学人:黑帮的经商之道?毒品交易泛滥

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Business: Schumpeter: Mafia Management

商业:熊彼得:黑帮的管理
The crime families of Naples are remarkably good at business.
那不勒斯犯罪集团经商有道。
An easy way to revive a flagging dinner party is to ask people to name their choice of the greatest crime show.
让意兴阑珊的晚宴重拾活力的一个好方法便是问问大家心中最好的犯罪剧集是哪部。
Is it “The Wire”, with its intricate portrait of Baltimore’s underworld? Or “The Sopranos”? Or perhaps “Breaking Bad”?
是用错综复杂的故事勾勒出巴尔的摩底层社会的《火线》?还是《黑道家族》?亦或是《绝命毒师》?

黑帮的经商之道.jpg

Now there is a new contender for the prize — “Gomorrah”, a drama about a collection of Italian gangs known as the Camorra that run a criminal empire from their base in Naples.

最近在众多犯罪类电视剧中又杀出一匹黑马——《格莫拉》,该剧讲述了发源于意大利那不勒斯的犯罪帝国克莫拉的故事。
“Gomorrah” has been Italy’s most talked-about television series since its release two years ago.
这部电视剧上映于两年前,一直是意大利的热播剧。
It has been sold in 50 countries and the first episode premiered on America’s Sundance TV this week.
如今已在50多个国家发行。本周,该剧将于美国圣丹斯电视台首映。
The series is far darker than the other three.
《格莫拉》的剧情较上文提及的几部剧集更为黑暗。
The gangsters aren’t lovable monsters like Tony Soprano, just monsters.
帮派成员不是托尼·瑟普拉诺(《黑道家族》男主角)那样让人爱恨交织的坏蛋,而是纯粹的恶棍。
It is more realistic.
这部剧由此也更为现实。
The author of the book behind the series, Roberto Saviano, has been in hiding since the Camorra issued a death warrant against him in 2006.
该剧原著作者罗伯特·萨维亚诺自从克莫拉于2006年对其发出死亡通牒后就一直东躲西藏。
Filming of the series in gritty Neapolitan neighborhoods was interrupted by local violence.
影片在环境恶劣残酷的那不勒斯地区拍摄时也曾由于当地人暴乱而一度暂停。
One of the most striking things about the Camorra is how good they are at business.
克莫拉最引人注目的一点就是其精湛的商业本领。
They have taken over from the Sicilian Mafia as Italy’s foremost crime syndicate, partly owing to the Italian state’s move to clamp down on the Cosa Nostra from the mid-1990s.
其庞大商业帝国的建成部分得益于意大利政府在20世纪90年代中期对美国黑手党的镇压,他们成功从西西里黑手党那里接管了意大利首要犯罪组织。
The Camorra’s strategy of focusing on drugs, particularly cocaine, has also paid off.
他们将重点放在毒品交易,尤其是可卡因,这个商业策略也非常成功。
The group runs much of Europe’s drug trade, including the continent’s largest open-air narcotics market in Secondigliano, in the north-east of Naples.
克莫拉包揽了欧洲大部分地区的毒品交易,包括位于那不勒斯东北部斯坎迪亚诺这个欧洲最大公开毒品交易市场。
The syndicate appears to be organized like a typical corporation, with descending levels of power.
这个犯罪集团像大公司一般组织的井井有条,权力层层下放。
There is a top tier of senior managers who determine strategy and allocate resources; a second tier of middle managers who purchase and process the product; a third level of sales chiefs who co-ordinate distribution; and a fourth grade of street salesmen who deliver the product directly to customers.
顶层有高级经理进行战略决策和资源分配,中层经理负责采购以及对产品进行加工,第三层的销售主管负责协调分销,第四层的街头销售负责直接向客户交付产品。
The group employs all the usual supply- chain-management methods.
集团采用了常见的供应链管理模式。
Its leaders source drugs from around the world (cocaine from Latin America, heroin from Afghanistan and hashish from north Africa) and make sure that alternatives are in place in case of disruption.
最高领导则负责从世界各地寻找货源(拉美的可卡因,阿富汗的海洛因以及北非的大麻)同时还要保证一旦供给发生中断替代性方案可随时就位。
They do some things outstandingly well.
某些方面他们做的非常好。
Operating outside Italy’s growth-killing labor rules, the Camorra can be fleet-footed.
他们罔故意大利遏制劳动力增长的劳动规章,迅速壮大队伍。
A loose alliance of about 115 gangs, with around 500 members each and numerous associates, they can swiftly assemble a work-force of whatever size is needed, or shift from one line of business to another in a ?ash.
115个帮派结成的松散联盟,每个联盟包括500位成员以及数不清的非正式成员,他们可以按照所需迅速组成各种规模的团体,或者瞬间切换业务线。
They are best-in-class when it comes to renewing talent and ideas.
他们在招募有能之士和观念更新方面能力超群。
Whenever entrenched managers balk at moving into new markets, as the older Camorra bosses did when drugs came along in the 1980s, they are replaced by a younger generation.
那些站稳了脚跟、习惯了固守一隅的经理们一旦在开拓新市场时畏畏缩缩,就会立马被年轻人所取代,就像19世纪80年代,在毒品刚出现时,踟蹰不前的大佬们的下场一样。
Paolo Di Lauro, the former head of one of the most powerful clans, and the model for Don Pietro in “Gomorrah”, is arguably one of the most innovative business people Italy has produced in recent years (since 2005 he has been held in solitary confinement in a maximum-security prison) .
《格莫拉》剧中堂彼得的原型,即当时最具权势的帮派老大Paolo Di Lauro,他可以说是意大利近年来最具创新精神的商人(自2005年起他就被单独收押在最高安全级别的监狱里)。
As well as coordinating the drug trade with Colombia, he designed the group’s successful franchise system, in which it treats distributors like franchisees who are responsible for their own turf rather than as mere employees.
他不仅促成了与哥伦比亚的毒品贸易,还设计了集团特许经营系统,这个系统极为成功,它将分销商都变成了特许经销商,他们可以各自管辖自己的地盘而不只是做一个雇员。

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source [sɔ:s]

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n. 发源地,来源,原始资料

 
confinement [kən'fainmənt]

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n. 拘禁,限制,分娩

 
episode ['episəud]

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n. 插曲,一段情节,片段,轶事

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innovative ['inəuveitiv]

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adj. 革新的,创新的

 
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