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托福TPO-48 Lecture 2-2

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Wilson’s theory was that: hot spots exist below tectonic plates, and they’re cause of these volcanoes.

Wilson的理论是:地壳板块下存在着热点,而它们正是这些火山产生的原因。
But what causes the hot spots? Hmm, well, the most popular theory that’s been proposed is the Plume Hypothesis.
但是什么导致了这些热点的出现呢?已提出的理论中支持率最高的是地幔柱理论(Plume Hypothesis)。
According to this hypothesis, plumes, uh, basically columns of extremely hot magma.
根据这个理论,地幔柱......基本上就是极其炙热的岩浆柱形物。
These plumes well up from deep inside the planet’s interior, maybe even as deep as its core,
这些地幔柱从地球内部的深层区域涌出,也许甚至有地核那么深,
and rise all the way up to melt through the Earth’s crust.
然后一路上涌熔化地壳。
Imagine a burning candle, and imagine moving a sheet of heavy paper slowly over the flame of the candle,
想象一下一根燃烧着的蜡烛,再想象一下慢慢把一张很厚的纸移到蜡烛火焰的上方,
you’re gonna get a series of burned spots in the paper.
你会看到纸上有一连串烧焦了的斑点。
Well, that’s just like what’s happening with the Hawaiian Islands, but instead of a sheet of paper, you’ve got a tectonic plate,
这和夏威夷群岛正在发生的事情是一样的,只不过那是一个地壳板块,而不是一张纸,
and it’s moving over this plume of intensely hot magma.
它正移动到这种炙热的岩浆火焰上方。
And rather than a series of burned spots in the paper,
与纸上一连串烧焦的斑点不同,
you’re getting a chain of volcanic islands where the hot plume melts though the crust under the Pacific Ocean at one point after another
出现的是一连串的火山岛,在这里炙热的地幔柱一个点接一个点地熔化了太平洋海底的地壳,
with active volcanoes on the younger islands that are now just above the plume.
而现在正处于岩浆火焰上方的形成时间较短的海岛上有着活跃的火山。


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