When their performance is reviewed, Ms Criado Perez argues that women are criticised for being bossy,
abrasive or strident, whereas men are encouraged to be more aggressive.
But if women are warm and friendly, they get criticised for being insufficiently professional.
Women's physical health, too, may be affected by male-dominated design. Their bodies absorb chemicals more quickly than men's do.
The long-term effects of inhaled particles on (mostly male) miners have been studied extensively;
those of cleaning products on (mostly female) cleaners have not.
In construction and engineering, tools and safety jackets are designed for male hands and bodies, not female ones.
Bulletproof and stabproof jackets are also designed for men and thus do not fit women comfortably;
a British police officer removed her jacket so she could use a hydraulic ram to enter a flat, only to be stabbed and killed.
Many men do not realise there is a problem. Those who believe they are objective when recruiting
are nevertheless more likely to hire another man than a woman with identical qualifications, as a paper from 2007 showed.
A similar issue is apparent with race, as Jennifer Eberhardt, a professor at Stanford University,
describes in her book "Biased: The New Science of Race and Inequality".
在她的作品《Biased: The New Science of Race and Inequality》一书中所述。
An American study showed that candidates with blacksounding names get fewer callbacks than those with traditional European names.
Even highly qualified African-Americans received fewer calls for interview than whites with lesser qualifications.
White people with a criminal record received as many callbacks from employers as black people who had never committed an offence.
And this was true whether or not the company described itself as an "equal opportunity employer".
It is natural if you have succeeded in work to assume this was down to your own merits.
But the existence of hidden biases shows that the playing field is not level.
As both authors argue, preventing discrimination depends not on white men discovering their inner liberal
but on decisions being taken by those with broader perspectives.
If every executive carries a hammer, it might not occur to them that some jobs need a screwdriver.