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经济学人:印尼经济—基础设施建立之后(2)

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Unemployment for 15- to 24-year-olds stands at 16%,

15岁到24岁人群的失业率为16%,
which is high by regional standards and three times the rate for the working-age population as a whole.
该比例按地区标准衡量偏高,且是整个劳动年龄人口比例的三倍。
That may be partly because young people are holding out for plum jobs in the civil service,
部分原因或许是因为年轻人正在为公务员的美差而苦苦挣扎,
where kickbacks are easily extracted, or in the natural-resources sector, where pay is high, says Chris Manning of Australia National University.
公务员容易拿回扣,或是薪水很高的自然资源部门,澳大利亚国立大学的Chris Manning说到。
But youth unemployment is highest among university graduates, suggesting a mismatch between the skills taught and those needed.
但青年失业率在大学毕业生中最高,这表明教授技能和所需技能并不匹配。
Hence an idea popular among policy wonks: to improve vocational schools and government training schemes.
因此一种想法在政治专家中很流行:改进职业学校和政府培训计划。
School reforms would take a generation to be felt,
学校改革需要一代人的时间才能感受到,
but better training for the existing labour force could create more jobs within a year, argues Chatib Basri, a former finance minister.
但对现有劳动力进行更好的培训可以在一年内创造更多的就业机会,前财政部长Chatib Basri说到。
That would give Jokowi the political capital and momentum he needs to press for further changes.
这将给维多多他所需的政治资本和动力推动进一步改革。

印尼经济—基础设施建立之后(2).jpg

The reform economists think would be most effective would be to make it easier for foreigners to invest.

经济学家认为最有效的改革是让国外投资变得更加容易。
A study by the OECD found that Indonesia's rules for foreign direct investment (FDI)
OECD的一项研究发现印尼的国外直接投资(FDI)规定
were the third-most restrictive out of 68 rich and middle-income countries.
是68个富裕和中等收入国家中第三严格的。
FDI as a share of GDP has averaged 1.5% over the past three years, among the lowest in the region.
过去三年,FDI占GDP的比重平均为1.5%,是该地区最低的。
Red tape makes it hard for foreign workers to move to Indonesia. They are less than 1% of the workforce.
繁文缛节使外籍员工难以移民印尼。他们占劳动力比例不足1%。
Loosening these rules would help to revive the ailing manufacturing sector.
放宽这些规定将帮助复兴落后的制造业。
Indonesia struggles to compete with neighbours with better infrastructure and lower payroll costs.
印尼难以和拥有更好基础设施建设和更低薪工成本的邻国竞争。
That is particularly the case in export-oriented industries such as smartphone assembly and shoemaking.
在智能手机组装和制鞋等出口导向型行业尤其如此。
In Vietnam the value of imports plus exports is around 195% of GDP; in Indonesia it is about 43%.
在越南,进口加出口的价值大约是GDP的195%;在印尼,约43%。
Cutting import restrictions would also help.
减少进口限制也会有所帮助。
Mr Basri points out that 90% of Indonesia's imports are raw materials or capital goods, such as machinery, which keep factories humming.
Basri指出印尼90%的进口是原材料或生产资料,如帮助工厂运营的机器。
An influx of foreign firms could have direct benefits for the education system, too.
外国公司的涌入也会给教育体系带来直接的好处。
In Malaysia and Thailand, unlike Indonesia, foreigners can establish and operate universities.
和印尼不一样,在马来西亚和泰国,外国人可以建立、经营大学。
Moreover, foreigners could help train Indonesians. Skills are taught at least as well on the factory floor as in the classroom.
此外,外国人可以帮助训练印尼人。至少在工厂教授的技能和在学校里的一样好。
Google has launched a scholarship to teach Indonesian students to code; it says it has already trained 110,000 app developers.
谷歌成立了一项奖学金用于教印尼学生编码;其表示已经培训出了110000位应用开发工程师。
Jokowi's aim of upskilling Indonesia is admirable. The best way to do it is to attract skill-hungry businesses.
维多多提高印尼人技术的目标是值得赞赏的。提高技能最好的方法是吸引急需技能的企业。

译文由可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载。

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