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世界十大遭掠夺文物

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6:欧弗洛尼奥斯陶瓶 Euphronios Krater

Even with the best of intentions, it may be difficult for museums to completely avoid the acquisition of ill-gotten artifacts. Consider the case of the Euphronios krater. The Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the 2500-year-old krater — an ornate bowl used to combine water with wine — for $1 million in 1972, thrilled to find one of the few known examples of the ancient painter Euphronios. It had been purchased, however, from Robert Hecht, now on trial in Italy on charges of conspiring to deal in looted antiquities. And while any cloud of suspicion over the krater's provenance was unbeknownst to Met curators in 1972, the museum faced calls from Italy to return the artifact, originally discovered outside Rome.

即使是十分刻意的去避免,博物馆仍然难以避免不了得到一些来路不正的文物,比如欧弗洛尼奥斯陶瓶。这个有2500年历史,装饰华丽,用来混合水与酒的陶瓶,被大都会艺术博物馆于1972年以100美元的价格得到。博物馆为能得到陶瓶感到非常的兴奋,因为古代陶艺画家欧弗洛尼奥斯的作品并不多见。但是,它是买自罗伯特 赫克特,而此公现在正被意大利政府以秘密倒卖劫掠文物罪被通缉。所以正当大都会博物馆馆长为陶瓶究竟来自哪里而感到疑惑时,博物馆收到了来自意大利的电话,原来陶瓶是最先在罗马城外发现的,并且意大利方面要求将陶瓶退还。

Current Status: After several years of negotiation, the Met returned the krater to Italy in 2008 in exchange for the rights to display several comparable artifacts on loan.

目前状况: 经过多年的磋商,大都会博物馆在2008年把陶瓶归还给了意大利,作为交换,博物馆获得了借走几件相同价值文物的用来展览的权利。

7:普里阿摩斯的宝藏 Priam's Treasure

Germany's plunder during World War II was legendary, but with Priam's Treasure they were the victims.

德国二战期间的对文物的偷盗甚至有了些传奇色彩,但是他们的确是失去普里阿摩斯宝藏的受害者。

Not that we should feel sorry.

当然并不是说我们应该为此感到遗憾。

German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the artifacts — mostly gold, copper shields and weapons — in Anatolia 1837 and named them for Priam, king of Troy. Schliemann illegally smuggled the loot to Berlin, convinced he had found evidence of the Iliad's famed ancient city. But in a bit of karmic payback, Soviet soldiers stole the treasure from Berlin during the waning days of World War II, keeping their bounty a secret for decades until the artifacts turned up on display in Moscow in 1993.

1837年,小亚细亚地区,德国的考古学家海因里希 谢里曼发现了这些古器物(主要是金,铜的盾和武器),并用普里阿摩斯(特洛伊的国王)为其命名。谢里曼将其非法走私到了德国,他坚信自己找到了《伊里亚特》中著名古城特洛伊存在的证据。但可能是因果报应吧,苏联战士在二战德国被打败后,又将宝藏在柏林偷运走了。他们一直保守着这个秘密,直到几十年以后的1993年,这些古器物才出现在莫斯科的展台上。

Current Status: Russia is technically bound by a 1990 treaty that provides for the return of all pilfered art and artifacts back to Germany. But Russian museums are now stonewalling, saying they plan to keep the treasure as reparation for Germany's destruction of Soviet cities during the war.

目前情况:虽然俄罗斯在1990年签订了一项旨在归还德国全部的被盗文物的协议。俄罗斯的博物馆依然没有归还的意思,他们表示,宝藏将会用于补偿二战期间德国对前苏联城市的破坏。

8:光之山巨钻 Koh-i-Noor Diamond

There are many claims to the Koh-i-Noor diamond.

很多人声称具有光之山巨钻的真正所有权。

The jewel may have passed through hands and nations for as many as 5000 years — some think ancient Mesopotamian texts make reference to the Koh-i-Noor as early as 3200 B.C. It may have once been a monstrous 793 carets, before a jeweler's maladroitness and a few subsequent refinements chopped it to the mere 109-caret chunk it is today. The Moguls possessed it in the 16th Century, only to lose it to the Iranians, who then lost it to the Afghans. It later went to the Sikhs and ended up with the British. And while the stone carried with it a warning that it would bring harm to its owner, Queen Victoria paid it no heed. It circulated through the British crown jewels until finding a home in the coronation crown of Elizabeth, Britain's most recent Queen Mother.

这颗宝石可能在不同人,不同国家之间流落了五千年之久了,因为有些人认为古美索不达米亚早在公元前3200就有了关于宝石的记载。它可能曾经有793个棱角,但经过一个笨拙的宝石匠之手和几次小的精雕后,它被切到今天的只有109个棱。莫卧尔王朝在16世纪拥有这颗钻石,不料,有一天钻石却输给了伊朗人,而伊朗人又将其输给了阿富汗人。随即又辗转到锡克教徒手中,最终在它在英国停止了流浪。尽管钻石上带有警告——此石将会妨主,但维多利亚女王并对这诅咒予以理会。这颗宝石曾被镶上到不同皇冠之上,直到它在的英国最近的一位王太后——伊丽莎白的加冕皇冠上永久的安家。

Current Status: Many lay claim to the Koh-i-Noor, including the Taliban, who trace its origin in India through Afghanistan in ancient days. Indian Sikhs have asked for the diamond back too, as they were the most recent holders before the British. For their part, the British are deaf to these claims, arguing since the diamond has passed through so many hands for so long, they have just as much right to the stone as anyone.

目前情况:很多人对宝石做出主张,甚至包括塔利班,他们甚至将宝石的来源追溯到古阿富汗到古印度。印度的锡克教徒也要求归还宝石,因为他们是在英国人之前最后得到宝石的人。英国方面则对这一切主张不予评论,主张既然宝石曾经留过如此多人之手,他们就拥有和以前所有人一样多的权利。

9:杰罗尼莫(古代印第安部落阿帕奇首领)的头骨 Geronimo's Skull

Are the members of one of the world's most prestigious and legendary secret societies grave robbers? Descendants of Geronimo want answers to the persistent rumors that members of Yale's Skull and Bones Society unearthed the remains of the Apache warrior to bring back to their New Haven campus.

会是世界上最具声望和传奇性的秘密盗墓组织吗所为吗?杰罗尼莫的后代们希望能够得到对这个流传很久的谣言的真正答案,即是否是耶鲁大学的骷髅会成员将阿帕奇勇士的遗骨挖掘出来,并带到了他们的纽黑文校区。

Current Status: Descendant Harlyn Geronimo filed a lawsuit in February against Yale, the Order of Skull and Bones and members of the U.S. government, calling for the return of any of Geronimo's remains. A Yale spokesman had no comment, but some experts believe Bonesman raided the wrong grave anyway. No matter — the Bonesmen are also rumored to possess two more famed skulls, those of Pancho Villa and President Martin Van Buren.

目前状况:harlyn 杰罗尼莫已经对耶鲁大学,骷髅会(也是宗教组织)和美国政府的一些官员提起诉讼。他要求起码要归还遗骨的一部分。耶鲁的一名发言人对此不予评论,但是很多专家认为盗骨者们当时很可能偷袭错了墓地。但这没关系,因为盗骨者们还被传言用有另外两个大名鼎鼎人物的头骨,即潘乔·比亚(墨西哥游击队领导人,译者注)和马丁·范布伦(美国总统,译者注)。

10:伊拉克国家博物馆 Iraqi National Museum

In search of a future flash point for conflicts over plundered artifacts? Search no further than Iraq's National Museum. In the days after the fall of Saddam Hussein, more than 15,000 artifacts were taken from the museum's collection, including many ancient examples of Mesopotamian jewelry and ceramics.

想知道将会有哪些导火索会引起新的被盗文物争端吗?去伊拉克国家博物馆看看就是了。萨达姆 侯赛因倒台后,有15000多件馆藏被盗,其中包括很多古代美索不达米亚的珠宝和陶制品。

Current Status: The museum reopened in late February, but Iraqi officials were only able to secure just 6,000 of the missing items, which are now housed in their own special wing in the museum. Arrests — and recoveries — continue as authorities try to prevent Iraq's prized cultural treasures from being traded on the open market.

目前状况:博物馆于今年二月份重新开馆,但是伊拉克的官员们只寻回了6000个丢失文物,目前,这批被追回文物被安置在博物馆的一个特殊偏房里。伊拉克当局一直在进行逮捕,一件件的追回着丢失的文物,他们努力的保护着伊拉克的宝贵文化宝藏,以防止文物其在自由市场上被交易。



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