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中国市场经济地位遇阻将引爆新贸易战

来源:可可英语 编辑:shaun   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

China is gearing up for a new round of trade battles with the US,

中国准备迎来与美国、欧盟(EU)及其他主要贸易大国的新一轮贸易战。

EU and other leading trading powers after failing to secure widespread recognition for a bid to be viewed as a market economy under World Trade Organisation rules.

此前,它主张依据世贸组织(WTO)规则自己应被视为市场经济体,但这一主张未能获得广泛认可。

Beijing has been pushing for a provision that allows trading partners to use a special formula to calculate punitive tariffs for non-market economies in anti-dumping cases to expire with Sunday’s 15th anniversary of its WTO membership.

北京方面一直力主一项条款应于上周日中国成为WTO成员国15年周年时终止执行。该条款允许各贸易伙伴国在反倾销案中,使用一个特殊公式来计算针对非市场经济体的惩罚性关税。

But that expiry is now in dispute.

但是,该条款的终止执行如今却存在争议。

A move once viewed as automatic has become increasingly contentious after cheap Chinese steel flooded on to world markets and sparked a wave of politically sensitive anti-dumping cases.

该条款曾被认为应自动终止执行,但由于廉价中国钢材融入世界市场、引发了一波具有政治敏感性的反倾销案,这种处理已引起越来越大的争议。

As a result, China is being forced to challenge new dumping cases brought against it in the US and other jurisdictions in a process that could take years and prove a significant irritant in Beijing’s trade relations with the world.

其结果是,中国将不得不对在美国和其他司法管辖区发起的对华新反倾销案提出抗辩,这个过程可能会持续数年,并成为中国与世界贸易关系中的一大问题源。

In a sign of the commercial stakes, the US on Friday imposed punitive anti-dumping tariffs on Chinese-made washing machines,

具有重要商业意义的一个迹象是,上周五美国对输美中国产洗衣机开征惩罚性关税。

imports into the US of which were worth more than $1.1bn last year.

去年,中国对美洗衣机出口额超过11亿美元。

It also announced the launch of a new anti-dumping investigation into plywood imports from China,

美国还宣布,对从中国进口的胶合板发起新的反倾销调查。

which were also worth more than $1bn last year.

去年,中国对美胶合板出口额超过10亿美元。

Those US cases and the fight over Beijing’s market economy status point to the battles over trade already being fought with China even as Donald Trump,

美国发起的反倾销案,以及围绕中国市场经济地位展开的斗争,都是与中国正在打的贸易战的例子。

the incoming president, promises to get tough with Beijing over trade and other issues.

而就在此时,美国侯任总统唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)发誓要在贸易和其他问题上对中国采取强硬态度。

"One of the most important relations we must improve . . . is our relationship with China," Mr Trump said last week.

我们必须改进的最重要关系之一……就是我们与中国的关系。

"China is responsible for almost half of America's trade deficit [and] they haven't played by the rules."

特朗普上周说,中国对美国将近一半的贸易赤字负责,(而且)他们不按规则行事。

China's Commerce Ministry has vowed to take "necessary measures" against any WTO member that refuses to regard it as a market economy in dumping cases.

中国商务部发誓,要对一切在反倾销案中拒绝把中国视为市场经济体的WTO成员国采取必要措施。

Beijing’s WTO accession agreement says that in any event a clause allowing other nations to use third countries to calculate prices would expire after 15 years.

中国的入世协议称,在任何情况下,一项允许其他国家使用第三国相关价格水准来计算中方成本的条款都应在15年后终止执行。

Sunday was the 15th anniversary of its accession.

上周日是中国入世15周年。

"This is a question of protecting our rights and maintaining the rules," said Xue Rongjiu, vice-president of the WTO Institute, a think-tank affiliated with the ministry of commerce.

这是一个保护我们权利和维护规则的问题,中国商务部下属智库中国世界贸易组织研究会副会长薛荣久说,

China isn't the China of yesteryear.

现在的中国已经不是过去的中国。

The reaction will be firm."

中国的反制将是坚决的。

The US and others argue that China has failed to live up to many of its WTO obligations and remains far from a market economy.

美国和其他国家辩称,中国未能履行WTO下的许多义务,而且远非一个市场经济体。

In the EU, US, UK and elsewhere, the closure of steel plants after a flood of cheap Chinese steel, plus a slowing global economy, caused a collapse in global steel prices that has also driven a political backlash.

在欧盟、美国、英国和其他地区,钢铁企业在大量廉价中国钢材涌入后倒闭,再加上全球经济增长放缓,导致全球钢铁价格大幅下跌,这也引发了政治上的反弹。

Mr Trump and others have seized on the economic impact.

特朗普和其他人对这一经济冲击加以了利用。

They have acted like a non-market economy in so many respects with their state-owned companies, with subsidies, with dumping.

考虑到他们的国有企业、补贴和倾销,他们在很多方面都表现得像是一个非市场经济体。

I mean there are more dumping cases brought against China than against all the other countries combined, said Sandy Levin, the top Democrat on the House Ways and Means Committee.

我的意思是,对中国发起的反倾销案比对其他所有国家发起的反倾销案之和还要多,众议院筹款委员会(House Ways and Means Committee)最资深的民主党人桑迪.莱文(Sandy Levin)说。

The debacle has prompted calls for change in the EU in particular.

尤其要指出的是,这种面对中国一败涂地的局面已在欧盟内部引发了要求改变的呼声。

Brussels is in the process of considering a fundamental shift in how it conducts anti-dumping and other trade remedy cases to allow it to impose far higher punitive tariffs than it does now.

布鲁塞尔方面正考虑彻底改变其操作反倾销和其他贸易补救案的办法,使其能够开征比现在高得多的惩罚性关税。

Chad Bown, a former White House economist now at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, said countries such as Brazil and India have also become much more aggressive in bringing anti-dumping cases against China.

曾任白宫经济学家、如今在彼得森国际经济研究所(PIIE)任职的查德.鲍恩(Chad Bown)表示,巴西和印度等国也在对华发起反倾销案方面变得比以前积极得多。

This is an issue for China and everybody in the world, not just the US and Europe, Mr Bown said.

这是中国同世界各国、而不只是同美、欧之间的一个问题,鲍恩说。

The commercial fear is that China may not wait for a challenge to the refusal to grant market economy status to work through the WTO system, a process that could take years.

商业界担心,中国可能不会等到就他国拒绝授予其市场经济地位提起的申诉走完WTO程序再采取行动。

Instead, it could respond with a wave of retaliatory anti-dumping tariffs of its own that would hurt exporters in other countries.

相反,中国可能会以它自己开征的一波报复性反倾销关税来反制,这将伤及其他国家的出口商。

The debate, however, also comes amid bigger systemic concerns surrounding the WTO and trade.

不过,这场争论发生的同时,外界对WTO和贸易也产生了更大的系统性担忧。

Mr Trump won his election on a protectionist platform and he is unlikely to usher in any change in approach on China’s market economy bid.

特朗普是靠保护主义政纲胜选的,他不大可能对美国对待中国市场经济地位问题的立场作出任何改变。

But both his vow to pull the US out of big Pacific Rim trade negotiations and the scepticism he has expressed about the WTO mean many already see China filling a more important leadership role in global trade talks.

但是,他发誓让美国退出大规模的环太平洋贸易谈判,并表示对WTO持怀疑态度,许多人已据此认为,中国将在全球贸易谈判中扮演更重要的领导角色。

Some question how constructive that Chinese role is likely to be.

一些人怀疑中国扮演的角色到底会有多大建设性。

Beijing’s focus on the market economy debate and other pet issues has also alienated other WTO members, who blamed China for this month’s failure to reach an agreement on the trade in environmental goods.

中国对市场经济地位和别的其所热衷的议题的关注,也令其他WTO成员国疏远了它,这些成员国将本月未能就环境产品贸易达成一项协议归咎于中国。

If that’s Chinese leadership then we are not going to be doing much in the next five years, said one senior trade official in Geneva.

如果这就是中国的领导作用,那么我们在未来五年做不成多少事情,日内瓦的一位资深贸易官员表示。

The Chinese side, for its part, is frustrated with developed countries’ apparent double-standards on the market economy access and other issues important for Chinese exporters.

中国一方则对发达国家在市场经济地位认定和其他对中国出口商而言重要的问题上明显持双重标准感到沮丧。

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retaliatory [ri'tæliətəri]

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adj. 报复的

 
impose [im'pəuz]

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impact ['impækt,im'pækt]

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n. 冲击(力), 冲突,影响(力)
vt.

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calculate ['kælkjuleit]

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recognition [.rekəg'niʃən]

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election [i'lekʃən]

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