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韩国如何让民主与商业并进

来源:可可英语 编辑:alice   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

In South Korea, both the country’s most important business leader and its previous president are behind bars, the former convicted of corruption, the other on trial for it.

韩国最重要的商业领袖和前任总统都身陷囹圄,前者被判犯有行贿罪,后者也正因腐败罪名受审。
The situation may not be unprecedented in states experiencing coups or collapses. But South Korea is a democracy, standing squarely on its own feet. The trials have been conducted by an independent judiciary. The arrest of former president Park Geun-hye followed citizens’ peaceful demonstrations against bribery and cronyism. Last week’s conviction of Lee Jae-yong, the vice-chairman and de facto leader of the Samsung chaebol, has not — so far — been derailed by that group’s immense influence. South Korea, a country long characterised by too-close relationships between corporations and government, could be in the opening stages of a bloodless and lawful revolution.
在经历了政变或崩溃的国家,这种局面可能并不是前所未有的。但韩国是一个完全独立自主的民主国家。两起案件都由独立的司法部门审理。在韩国民众举行和平示威、抗议腐败和裙带政治的背景下,前总统朴槿惠(Park Geun-hye)被捕。上周,三星(Samsung)财阀事实上的领导人、该集团副会长李在镕(Lee Jae-yong)被定罪,到目前为止,本案尚未被该集团巨大的影响力所左右。企业和政府之间关系过密是韩国长久以来的一个特征,如今这个国家可能正处于一场非暴力、合法的革命的起始阶段。
Much remains to be done to invigorate both democracy and business in South Korea, and ensure the proper distance between the two.
韩国还需要付出很多努力,以搞活民主和商业,并确保两者之间保持适当距离。
The recent events form a coda to a half century of astonishing change. In 1970 less than half of South Koreans went to secondary school. Now they are more likely to graduate from university than people in any other country. In five decades, gross domestic product per person has risen 20-fold to nearly $40,000 (adjusted for the local cost of living). This demonstrated that rapid growth and democracy can go hand in hand.
最近的事件正给韩国半个世纪以来令人惊叹的变化画上句号。1970年时,只有不到一半韩国人上过中学。如今韩国的大学毕业生比例超过其他所有国家。过去50年里,韩国人均国内生产总值(GDP)增长了19倍,达到近4万美元(根据当地生活成本进行调整后的数字)。这证明经济快速增长和民主可以携手并进。
As in other developing countries, family-run conglomerates — with their stable leadership, internal sources of financing and shared management resources — proved an effective corporate structure for a fast-growing, export-oriented economy. The government was determined to see these growth engines succeed. The result was a group of companies, with Samsung at the fore, that were equal — or even superior — in civic importance to the government itself.
正如其他发展中国家所表明的那样,在快速增长、出口导向型的经济中,大型家族企业集团——拥有稳定的领导层、内部融资来源以及共享的管理资源——被证实是一种有效的企业结构。韩国政府决心要看到这些拉动经济增长的企业取得成功。结果就是,以三星为首的一帮企业在民事上与政府地位相当、甚至高于政府。
Deep links between the state and the chaebol served the country in one stage of its history. But institutions that once nurtured nascent industries can also shelter entrenched interests. Ms Park is on trial, in part, for colluding in extorting funds from companies. The case against Mr Lee turned on a merger among Samsung subsidiaries which would have consolidated family control at the expense of minority shareholders. Prosecutors argued that he paid bribes to one of Ms Parks’ associates to ensure the deal would go through.
在韩国历史的一个阶段内,政府与财阀之间的深层联系有助于国家发展。但曾经培育了新兴产业的机构,也可能保护既得利益。朴槿惠受审,部分是因为与他人串通敲诈企业钱财。李在镕案引出了三星子公司的一桩合并案——该起合并以牺牲少数股股东的利益为代价巩固了家族控制。检方认为,李在镕向朴槿惠的一名助手行贿,以确保该交易顺利通过。
The chaebol have not, however, protected the country’s younger generation from high unemployment. They know that the old economic and civic order requires fundamental change.
然而,财阀没有使韩国年轻一代免受高失业率的困扰。他们知道,旧的经济和公民秩序需要彻底改变。
The next step is ensuring that the justice system continues to operate unimpeded. If Mr Lee’s conviction is upheld on appeal, he should not be pardoned — as his father was, twice, for financial wrongdoing. The current president, Moon Jae-in, has vowed not to extend a pardon, but he will be under terrific pressure. Similarly, the treatment of Ms Park must demonstrate that all are equal before the law.
下一步是确保司法体系继续不受阻碍地运行。如果在上诉阶段法院维持对李在镕的判决,他不应该得到赦免——他的父亲曾两次因为财务违规行为被定罪而后又被特赦。现任总统文在寅(Moon Jae-in,见文首图)发誓不会予以特赦,但他将承受巨大压力。同样,对朴槿惠的审理必须展现出法律面前人人平等。

韩国如何让民主与商业并进.jpg

Next, chaebol reform must continue apace. The first target is the cross-shareholdings that help maintain insider control in the absence of majority economic ownership. Samsung, under pressure from international investors and regulators, has already begun to untangle its group structure. The push should be redoubled. Mr Moon and his “chaebol sniper” Kim Sang-jo, head of the country’s Fair Trade Commission, must also follow through on their commitment to vigorous antitrust reform. If these and other promises are broken, South Korea’s 50-year success story will be at risk.

接下来,财阀改革必须继续快速推进。第一个目标是交叉持股——在财阀并未持有企业多数经济所有权的情况下,交叉持股帮助他们维持了内部控制。在国际投资者和监管部门的压力下,三星已经开始着手整顿其集团架构。此番改革应该加倍努力。文在寅和他的“财阀狙击手”——韩国公平贸易委员会(Fair Trade Commission)主席金相九(Kim Sang-jo)也必须遵守他们的承诺,大力推动反垄断改革。如果这些以及其他承诺未被履行,韩国半个世纪以来书写的成功故事就不妙了。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
astonishing [əs'tɔniʃiŋ]

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adj. 惊人的 动词astonish的现在分词

 
pardon ['pɑ:dn]

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n. 原谅,赦免
vt. 宽恕,原谅

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appeal [ə'pi:l]

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n. 恳求,上诉,吸引力
n. 诉诸裁决

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funds

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n. 基金;资金,现金(fund的复数) v. 提供资金

 
determined [di'tə:mind]

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adj. 坚毅的,下定决心的

 
extend [iks'tend]

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v. 扩充,延伸,伸展,扩展

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superior [su:'piəriə]

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n. 上级,高手,上标
adj. 上层的,上好

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invigorate [in'vigəreit]

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vt. 增添活力,鼓舞,激励

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reform [ri'fɔ:m]

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v. 改革,改造,革新
n. 改革,改良

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nascent ['næsnt]

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adj. 新生的,尚不成熟的

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