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经济学人:横跨大西洋的谍战 Transatlantic espionage

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Transatlantic espionage

横跨大西洋的谍战
The lives of others
窃听风暴
European governments should not kick up a fuss about American spying. They have too much to lose
欧洲国家政府不应为了“棱镜”门而大吵大闹。因为他们将损失惨重
NOBODY likes to be spied on, especially by their allies, so it is hardly surprising that Europeans are angry about American espionage operations conducted against them, on their territory. These include spying on the European Union embassy in Washington, DC (with a bug in the fax machine), and on the governments of France, Germany and other countries, as well as the collection of large amounts of electronic data—in Germany’s case half a billion phone calls, e-mails and text messages every month. In a country where Gestapo and Stasi crimes still leave dark shadows, and privacy rights have near-religious significance, that causes outrage.
没人喜欢被监控,更不要说被自己的盟友监控了。所以,当欧洲国家发现,美国人在对他们实施监控、还是在自己的地盘上时,会火冒三丈就不足为奇了。美国不仅监控了欧盟驻华盛顿大使馆(在其传真机内植入窃听器)、法德等其他国家政府,还搜集了大量电子数据——就德国而言,其电话、邮件、信息的被监控量每月达五亿。在德国,盖世太保(Gestapo)和斯塔西(Stasi)曾犯下许多罪行,人们心头的阴影还没消散,加之隐私权的神圣性在这里堪比宗教,美国的窃听行为可谓激起了民愤。
Many Europeans see in the disclosure further evidence of American arrogance and unaccountability—just another episode in a story that includes an illegal war in Iraq, drone strikes, “extraordinary rendition”, waterboarding and secret prisons. Some European politicians want a punitive response. One idea is to suspend agreements on sharing financial and other data between intelligence and law-enforcement agencies. Another is to halt talks on a big new transatlantic trade deal. A third is to offer asylum to Edward Snowden, the source of the leaks about his former employer, America’s National Security Agency. He is now marooned at a Moscow airport.
在许多欧洲人看来,此次“棱镜”门曝光乃美国人傲慢自大、行事鬼祟的又一明证。当人们目睹了发生在伊拉克的非法战争、无人机空袭、“非常规引渡”、水刑、秘密监狱等美国的一系列恶行之后,窃听事件只不过是故事的又一个插曲而已。某些欧洲政客希望对此采取惩罚性对策。第一种方法是,中止情报局、执法机构间的包括金融数据在内的信息共享协议。第二种,暂停最近重要的跨大西洋自由贸易协议谈判。第三种,为爱德华•斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供庇护。正是他对外披露了美国国家安全局(也就是他的前雇主)的秘密文件。目前,斯诺登仍困在莫斯科的一家机场中。
But any of these grandstanding approaches would be a mistake. One reason is hypocrisy. France has formidable foreign-intelligence services that spy on America, for economic and political advantage. Much of the intelligence that America gathers—especially in counter-terrorism—is shared with European countries. And much of the American activity in Europe happens in partnership with local agencies, even in Germany. Some of this co-operation may be of borderline legality in the countries concerned. Its disclosure may be embarrassing for politicians there. But that is hardly America’s fault.
但是,这些高调的处理方法可能都错了。原因之一——虚伪。法国的外国情报工作做得让人胆颤心惊,它为了经济、政治上的利益,也在监视美国。美国搜集的大部分情报都是与欧洲国家共享的,尤其在反恐方面。而且美国在欧洲的大部分行动,如果没有当地机构的合作是完成不了的,即便在德国也不例外。就相关国家而言,其中的部分合作是否合法可能还无法确定。“棱镜”门可能会让那些国家的政客深陷囧地。不过,这可算不上是美国的错。
A second reason is self-interest. America’s security umbrella allows European countries to feel safe from, for instance, the possibility of future Russian aggression while spending little on defence. But Europeans cannot take such protection for granted. In many American eyes, Europeans are already wobbly, tiresome free-riders who do not police their Islamist extremists properly, breach sanctions, flirt with dictatorships and leak secrets to the Russians and Chinese. America’s armed forces are already draining away from Europe because of Barack Obama’s “pivot” to Asia and a shortage of cash. The last tanks left in April. A petulant European response to the spy row risks speeding the pull-out.
原因之二——自私自利。在美国的安全网保护之下,欧洲国家只需花费少量的国防开支,就可以高枕无忧,比如,不用担心俄国可能会在将来大举进犯。但欧洲国家不能把这种保护看作理所当然的。在许多美国人眼中,欧洲国家早已是个摇摆不定、招人厌的“蹭饭一族”形象——他们没有妥善地治理本国的伊斯兰极端主义者,他们违背制裁、和独裁者暗中勾结,向俄国、中国泄漏机密。美国的武装力量已经从欧洲逐渐消失了,因为巴拉克•奥巴马的“战略轴心”转向了亚洲,而且美国缺乏资金。四月份的时候,最后一批坦克撤离了。欧洲要是这么任性地处理窃听风波,可能会加速美方撤离。
Europe also has most to gain from a transatlantic trade deal. It desperately needs the extra economic growth an agreement would bring (see article). America wants it too—but it is already enjoying a moderate economic revival of the sort the Europeans would kill for, and is also involved in negotiating a similar, transpacific pact, on which it can focus its efforts if the spying row makes dealing with the Europeans too difficult.
而且,跨大西洋自由贸易协议一旦达成,欧洲将成为最大的收益方。它急需这笔协议推动经济发展、带来额外增长(另见文)。美国也需要,但它的经济已经处于温和的复苏状态,而这样的增长速度正是欧洲竭力想达到的。而且美国也正筹备商议一个类似的跨太平洋协议,这样一来,如果窃听风波严重影响到了它和欧洲国家的谈判,它还可以调整重心,转移到跨太平洋协议上来。
It won’t stop the snooping
窃听活动不会就此停息
Finally, there is the pointlessness of the threat. Even if European governments did cut intelligence links with the Americans, that would not stop the spying. America would continue to conduct operations against all but a handful of truly close allies, such as Canada and Britain. Better to work alongside the Americans, than to treat them as enemies.
最后要说的是,此时相挟,毫无意义。就算欧洲国家政府切断与美方的情报线,窃听活动也不会就此停息。除英国和加拿大等少数心腹盟友,美国会继续对所有人实施监控。与其把美国当做敌人,还不如和它并肩作战。
None of this changes America’s need to discipline its spies for its own sake. As this newspaper made clear when the Snowden scandal broke, Americans need a much clearer idea of what is being done in their name. But Europe has most to lose from a transatlantic row. So why start one?
美国有必要为了自己,好好整顿一下情报部门了。这一点是一切都无法改变的。正如本报在斯诺登丑闻被爆时明确所说,美国需要更清楚地弄明白,(间谍)正以美国的名义在干些什么。但欧洲如果因这起跨大西洋窃听案而和美国闹僵,将会是最大失败者。所以,又何必呢?

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episode ['episəud]

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n. 插曲,一段情节,片段,轶事

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fuss [fʌs]

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n. 大惊小怪,小题大作,强烈不满或争吵
vi

 
conduct [kən'dʌkt]

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n. 行为,举动,品行
v. 引导,指挥,管理

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evidence ['evidəns]

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n. 根据,证据
v. 证实,证明

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leak [li:k]

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n. 漏洞
v. 漏,渗

 
moderate ['mɔdəreit,'mɔdərit]

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adj. 适度的,稳健的,温和的,中等的
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advantage [əd'vɑ:ntidʒ]

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n. 优势,有利条件
vt. 有利于

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aggression [ə'greʃən]

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n. 进攻,侵犯,侵害,侵略

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discipline ['disiplin]

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n. 训练,纪律,惩罚,学科
vt. 训练,惩

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espionage [.espiə'nɑ:ʒ]

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n. 间谍活动

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