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经济学人:印度教民族主义者 穿短裤的人们

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India's Hindu nationalists:

Men in shorts
The election over, Narendra Modi may drop the Hindu right
Not physical jerks
POLITICAL pundits have spent much of the past week debating exit polls, released just after the final day of voting on May 12th. The polls pointed, more or less, to a single outcome: the Bharatiya Janata Party will wallop the incumbent party, Congress, and, led by Narendra Modi, will form the next government. Investors pushed the stockmarket to a record high. But details matter, such as whether Mr Modi can rely on a narrow coalition or will need a broad one. Here, the pollsters cannot be relied upon. The official results are due on May 16th, after The Economist goes to press.

A second debate concerned the clout of the Hindu right. Since he was a boy, Mr Modi has been an activist member in the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, formed in 1925 as a pro-Hindu social movement. It began with charitable aims but always carried quasi-military overtones as men in brown shorts performed dawn callisthenics. These days the RSS is rebranding itself as a more youthful, right-leaning, nationalist organisation, with rugby and volleyball on offer as alternatives to physical jerks.

Throughout the election campaign, the RSS supplied volunteers for the BJP. The organisation's sway within the party remains strong. Mr Modi became party leader in 2013 when the RSS chose to back him. Observers see an effort to expand the RSS's “majoritarian” appeal, with less talk of Hindu identity and more about national strength. Smooth-tongued spokesmen downplay a once-core assertion of the RSS: that to be Indian was to be Hindu.
Yet Mr Modi's rise brings questions about the role of the RSS and the wider Sangh Parivar, or family of Hindu nationalist outfits. Some have high expectations. About 2,000 volunteers turned out to help Mr Modi in Varanasi alone. On May 12th members of the RSS's student wing cheered Mr Modi as “one of us ”, claiming he would bring relief on issues dear to them. These include calls for a temple to be built at the site of a demolished mosque in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh; for Muslim-majority Kashmir to lose its special status under the Indian constitution; and for the abolition of a separate marriage code for Muslims. Not for these people discussions about economic policies.
A senior RSS organiser in Varanasi talks of Mr Modi restoring pride in “what the nation lost in the last 1,000 years, in the sons of the nation, the Hindus who originally belonged to this country”. Only once before, at the defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977, has the RSS thrown itself so heavily into party politics. Just as it is helping Mr Modi's cause, so he is helping the RSS, according to one of its spokesmen in Delhi. With more effective recruiting, especially online, 10,000 new members are said to be signing up each month, including at universities and among employees at the country's booming IT firms.
If Mr Modi becomes prime minister, members of the broad Sangh Parivar family say they expect a more forceful approach to Pakistan and China. School textbooks could be reworked to show history “in the right way”, as one puts it, for example by telling how Maratha kings triumphed over Muslim armies.
Yet Mr Modi's readiness for collaboration may prove passing. It is true that on May 10th he spent two hours with the RSS's leader, Mohan Bhagwat, reportedly to assess the national campaign and potential ruling coalitions. But with voting over, the BJP will not need its armies of street volunteers. And Hindu nationalists may recall how in Mr Modi's early years of running the state of Gujarat, he mostly kept the RSS at arm's length, worried that a rival power might arise. Widening his appeal to all Indians may mean turning his back on the more divisive outfits to which he has been close.
然而莫迪先生的合作意愿可能只是短暂的。5月10日,他与RSS的领导人莫汉.巴格瓦特会谈了两个小时,据报道是在评估全国运动以及潜在的执政联盟。但是当投票结束后,印度人民党将不再需要街头的志愿者军队。那时印度教民族主义者或许会记起莫迪先生早年在古吉拉特邦执政时是如何做的——大多数时候他都会与RSS保持距离 ,以避免反对力量的出现。迎合更广大的印度人民意味着莫迪先生会背离这一引起纠纷的组织,尽管他一直同印度国民服务团关系亲密。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
separate ['sepəreit]


n. 分开,抽印本
adj. 分开的,各自的,

clout [klaut]


n. 猛击,影响力 [英]破布 v. 猛击

forceful ['fɔ:sfəl]


adj. 有力的,强烈的

effective [i'fektiv]


adj. 有效的,有影响的

outcome ['autkʌm]


n. 结果,后果

movement ['mu:vmənt]


n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

social ['səuʃəl]


adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

defeat [di'fi:t]


n. 败北,挫败
vt. 战胜,击败

potential [pə'tenʃəl]


adj. 可能的,潜在的
n. 潜力,潜能

pride [praid]


n. 自豪,骄傲,引以自豪的东西,自尊心