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走进哈佛大学(MP3+中英字幕) 第1期:清教徒和哈佛

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Puritans and Harvard

清教徒和哈佛
Puritans played a very important role in Harvard history as well as in American history.
清教徒不仅在美国历史中扮演过重要角色,同样在哈佛大学的历史中也起到了重要作用。
In the 16th and 17th century, a series of religious reforms took place in England Finally,
在16和17世纪的英国发生了一系列宗教改革,
the Church of England was established as the Established Church.
最终圣公会被定为英国国教。
People did not have religious freedom.
人们没有宗教自由。
Those people who did not agree with the Church of England were regarded as Separatists and were persecuted.
那些不同意英国国教观点的人被视为宗教分裂者,并遭到迫害。
To escape religious persecution, many people fled from England to other countries.
很多清教徒选择移民到新大陆。
Many Puritans chose to go to the New World.
为了逃脱宗教迫害,许多人逃离英国,前往其他国家。
In 1620, a ship named Mayflower left England.
1620年,一艘名为“五月花号”的船离开了英国。

It transported the English Separatists, better known as Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to Plymouth, Massachusetts, the United States.

它载着英国宗教分离派——更熟悉的称号是“清教徒前辈移民”,离开了英国的普利茅斯前往美国马萨诸塞州的普利茅斯。
There were 102 passengers, more than one third of whom were Puritans.
船上有102名乘客,其中1/3多的人是清教徒。
During the following decade, the number of Puritans grew.
在接下来的10年中,清教徒队伍逐渐壮大起来。
Then in 1628 these Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
并于1628年建立了马萨诸塞湾殖民地。
Many Puritans had received classic style of higher education in Oxford University and Cambridge University in England.
许多清教徒都曾在英国的牛津和剑桥大学接受过古典式的高等教育。
They wanted to pass on to their descendants this kind of education.
他们想把这种教育传给子孙后代。
Besides, these colonists saw colleges as an effective way to disperse religious belief.
此外,这些殖民者把大学看做是传播宗教信仰的有效途径。
Therefore, in 1636 the first and oldest institution of higher learning in the United States was established by vote of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony,
所以,1636年马萨诸塞湾殖民地法院投票通过并建立了美国第一所也是最古老的一所高等教育机构,
140 years earlier than the foundation of the United States.
比美国建国早了140年。
The institution was initially named “New College” or “the College at New Towne"(or “Cambridge College”).
这所机构最初被命名为“新学院”或“新市民学院”(又名“剑桥学院”)。
The town where the college located was named Cambridge, because many Puritans had studied in Cambridge University.
因为许多清教徒都出身于剑桥大学,所以学院所在镇被命名为“剑桥”(现称“坎布里奇”)。
The name of the town demonstrated that many people still cherished their memory of life in England.
小镇的名字表明了许多人仍然怀念在英国的生活。
Although they had been persecuted in England, many people still saw England as their motherland.
虽然在那里受到了压迫,但这时许多人还把英国看做自己的祖国。
The college followed the style of English universities as well.
学院的模式也是延续了英国那些大学的模式。
Then in 1639 the college was renamed Harvard College after a benefactor called John Harvard who was a clergyman.
1639年学院以一位名叫约翰.哈佛的捐赠者重新命名,改名为哈佛学院,而约翰.哈佛本人是个牧师。
Therefore, in a sense, Harvard University was the product of religious activities.
所以,从某种意义上讲,哈佛大学是宗教活动的产物。

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escape [is'keip]

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v. 逃跑,逃脱,避开
n. 逃跑,逃脱,(逃

 
initially [i'niʃəli]

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adv. 最初,开头

 
effective [i'fektiv]

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adj. 有效的,有影响的

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established [is'tæbliʃt]

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adj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est

 
foundation [faun'deiʃən]

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n. 基础,根据,建立
n. 粉底霜,基

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benefactor ['beni.fæktə]

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n. 恩人,捐助者,赠送者

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colony ['kɔləni]

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n. 殖民地,侨民,侨居地,聚居(地), 群体,菌落

 
institution [.insti'tju:ʃən]

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n. 机构,制度,创立

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decade ['dekeid]

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n. 十年

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disperse [dis'pə:s]

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vt. 分散,传播,散开
vi. 分散

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