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经济学人:女性和经济:市场支配力(1)

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Women and economics

女性和经济
Market power
市场支配力
How the economics profession should fix its gender problem
经济学专业应如何解决性别问题
At the heart of economics is a belief in the virtues of open competition as a way of using the resources you have in the most efficient way you can. Thanks to the power of that insight, economists routinely tell politicians how to run public policy and business people how to run their firms. Yet when it comes to its own house, academic economics could do more to observe the standards it applies to the rest of the world. In particular, it recruits too few women. Also, many of those who do work in the profession say they are treated unfairly and that their talents are not fully realised. As a result, economics has fewer good ideas than it should and suffers from a skewed viewpoint. It is time for the dismal science to improve its dismal record on gender.
经济学的核心是相信公开竞争的好处,即以最有效的方式利用所拥有的资源。由于这种洞察力的力量,经济学家经常告诉政客们如何管理公共政策,商业人士如何管理其公司。然而,就其自身而言,学术经济学可以做得更多,以遵守其适用于世界其它地区的标准。其结果是,经济学提供的好点子比本应提供的少,而且受到一种扭曲的观点的困扰。这门沉闷的科学是时候改善它在性别方面的沉闷记录了。

woman.jpg

For decades relatively few women have participated in stem subjects: science, technology, engineering and maths. Economics belongs in this list. In the United States women make up only one in seven full professors and one in three doctoral candidates. There has been too little improvement in the past 20 years. And a survey by the American Economics Association (AEA) this week shows that many women who do become academic economists are treated badly.

几十年来,参与主要学科的女性相对较少,这些学科主要包括:科学、技术、工程和数学。经济学也位列其中。在美国,全职教授只有七分之一是女性,博士研究生只有三分之一是女性。过去二十年也鲜有提升。美国经济协会(AEA)本周的一项调查显示,许多成为学院派女性经济学家受到恶劣的对待。
Only 20% of women who answered the AEA poll said that they are satisfied with the professional climate, compared with 40% of men. Some 48% of females said they have faced discrimination at work because of their sex, compared with 3% of male respondents. Writing about the survey results, Janet Yellen and Ben Bernanke, both former chairs of the Federal Reserve, and Olivier Blanchard, a former chief economist of the IMF, said that “many members of the profession have suffered harassment and discrimination during their careers, including both overt acts of abuse and more subtle forms of marginalisation.”
在接受AEA调查的女性中,只有20%的人表示对目前的职业环境感到满意,而男性的这一比例为40%。约48%的女性表示,她们在工作中曾因性别而受到歧视,而男性受访者中这一比例仅为3%。美联储前主席珍妮特•耶伦和本•伯南克,以及国际货币基金组织前首席经济学家奥利维尔•布兰查德撰写了有关调查结果的文章,“很多女性经济学家在其职业生涯中遭受骚扰和歧视,包括公开的虐待行为和更微妙的边缘化形式。”

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skewed [skju:d]

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adj. 歪斜的;曲解的

 
stem [stem]

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n. 茎,干,柄,船首
vi. 起源于

 
particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

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reserve [ri'zə:v]

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n. 预备品,贮存,候补
n. 克制,含蓄

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professional [prə'feʃənl]

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adj. 职业的,专业的,专门的
n. 专业人

 
poll [pəul]

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n. 投票,民意测验,民意,票数
v. 做民意

 
academic [.ækə'demik]

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adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
n.

 
observe [əb'zə:v]

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v. 观察,遵守,注意到
v. 评论,庆

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subtle ['sʌtl]

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adj. 微妙的,敏感的,精细的,狡诈的,不明显的

 
dismal ['dizməl]

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adj. 阴沉的,凄凉的,暗的

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