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第116期:量子力学如何阐释波粒二象性?

来源:可可英语 编辑:Melody   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

In the last video,

上一个视频中

I introduced the idea that really small things act sometimes like waves,

我们讲到微观世界的物体有时表现得像波

and sometimes like particles.

有时却又像粒子

So how can we actually picture the wave-particle duality of,

那么物理学家是怎样描绘波粒二象性呢

say, an electron?

以电子为例

Well, imagine our electron is a speck of dust in a raindrop.

假设电子是雨滴中的一粒尘埃

We know pretty well where the speck is, at first.

且我们知道雨滴下落时尘埃的位置

images (1).jpg

But when the drop hits the ground, it'll spread out like a wave

但雨滴落到地面就会像波一样散开

- and the speck of dust will be somewhere in that wave.

电子则会随机落在波上某点

So the speck (our electron) is guided by the wave

所以我们说波决定了电子的状态

- but there's still only one speck,

但电子终究只是一点尘埃

and if you actually look for it, you'll only find it in one place.

如果去找 只会在一个地方发现它

The wave will also tell you how likely you are to find the speck at any one point

波同样显示了电子出现的概率

– if the drop splits in two,

如果水滴摔成了两半

you're more likely to find the speck wherever there's more water!

电子很可能出现在较大的部分里

And that's pretty much how the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics works:

这就是波粒二象性在量子力学里的运作机理

each particle is guided by a wave that determines the chances it'll be in a certain place or state.

粒子出现于某一位置的概率及状态由导航波理论决定

Easy, right?

是不是异常简单?

The hard part is figuring out the movement of the waves!

问题只在于解析波的运动

重点单词   查看全部解释    
spread [spred]

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v. 伸展,展开,传播,散布,铺开,涂撒
n.

 
movement ['mu:vmənt]

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n. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章

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certain ['sə:tn]

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adj. 确定的,必然的,特定的
pron.

 
mechanics [mi'kæniks]

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n. 力学,机械学,(技术的,操作的)过程,手法

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duality [dju:'æləti]

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n. 二元性;[物]二象性

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