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经济学人:约翰逊语言专栏--机器写手无法完全取代人类(2)

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What eludes computers is creativity. By virtue of having been trained on past compositions, they can only be derivative. Furthermore, they cannot conceive a topic or goal on their own, much less plan how to get there with logic and style. At various points in the online version of his article, readers can see how GPT-2 would have carried on writing Mr Seabrook’s piece for him. The prose gives the impression of being human. But on closer inspection it is empty, even incoherent.

计算机无法达到的是创造力。由于是在过去的文章上受训练,机器写手只能是衍生物。此外,他们不能自己构思一个主题或目标,更不用说如何用逻辑和风格去实现它。在这篇文章的网络版中,读者可以看到GPT-2是如何继续为西布鲁克先生撰写这篇文章的。文章刚开始给人一种人写的印象。但仔细一看,它是空的,甚至是不连贯的。

GPT-2.png

Meaningless prose is not only the preserve of artificial intelligence. There is already a large quantity of writing that seems to make sense, but ultimately doesn’t, at least to a majority of readers. In 1996 Alan Sokal famously submitted a bogus article to a humanities journal, with ideas that were complete nonsense but with language that expertly simulated fashionable post-modernist academic prose. It was accepted. Three scholars repeated the ruse in 2017, getting four of 20 fake papers published. Humans already produce language that is devoid of meaning, intentionally and otherwise.

毫无意义的散文不仅是人工智能的专利。已经有大量表面看起来有意义的文章,但其实没有意义,至少对大多数读者来说是这样。1996年,著名的Alan Sokal向一份人文杂志提交了一篇伪造的文章,其观点完全是胡说八道,但其语言却熟练地模仿了时髦的后现代主义学术散文。这篇文章发表了。2017年,三名学者重复了这一伎俩,发表了20篇假论文中的4篇。人类已经有意或无意地创造了没有意义的语言。
But to truly write, you must first have something to say. Computers do not. They await instructions. Given input, they provide output. Such systems can be seeded with a topic, or the first few paragraphs, and be told to “write”. While the result may be grammatical English, this should not be confused with the purposeful kind. To compose meaningful essays, the likes of GPT-2 will first have to be integrated with databases of real-world knowledge.
但要真正写作,你必须先有话要说。机器写手做不到这一点。只能等待指令。给定输入,电脑提供输出。这样的系统可以植入一个主题,或前几段,并收到“写”的指令。虽然结果可能是合乎语法的英语,但不应将其与有目的的英语混淆。要写出有意义的文章,像GPT-2这样的项目首先必须与真实世界的知识数据库相结合。

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重点单词   查看全部解释    
derivative [di'rivətiv]

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adj. (贬)非独创的,庸乏的,派生的
n.

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incoherent [.inkəu'hiərənt]

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adj. 不连贯的,语无伦次的

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impression [im'preʃən]

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n. 印象,效果

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logic ['lɔdʒik]

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n. 逻辑,逻辑学,条理性,推理

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ultimately ['ʌltimitli]

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adv. 最后,最终

 
artificial [.ɑ:ti'fiʃəl]

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adj. 人造的,虚伪的,武断的

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confused [kən'fju:zd]

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adj. 困惑的;混乱的;糊涂的 v. 困惑(confu

 
grammatical [grə'mætikəl]

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adj. 语法的,合乎文法的

 
inspection [in'spekʃən]

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n. 检查,视察

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intentionally [in'tenʃənli]

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adv. 有意地,故意地

 

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