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SAT阅读模拟题之diseases from the Old World

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  下面为大家整理的是一篇关于diseases from the Old World的SAT阅读模拟题,后面附有相关题目和正确答案。SAT阅读考试中的文章阅读在题目的设置上非常有特点,大家一起来看看详细内容吧,看看有哪些题目是特别的。

Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported

from the Old World for the staggering disparity between

the indigenous population of America in 1492—new esti-

mates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approxi-

(5) mately one-sixth of the human race at that time—and

the few million full-blooded Native Americans alive at

the end of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that

chronic disease was an important factor in the precipi-

tous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest

(10) killer was epidemic disease, especially as manifested in

virgin-soil epidemics.

Virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the popula-

tions at risk have had no previous contact with the

diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi-

(15) cally almost defenseless. That virgin-soil epidemics were

important in American history is strongly indicated by

evidence that a number of dangerous maladies—small-

pox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly

several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian

(20) New World. The effects of their sudden introduction

are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America,

which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep

population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent

quantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and

(25) other sources. The evidence provided by the documents

of British and French colonies is not as definitive

because the conquerors of those areas did not establish

permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous

records until the seventeenth century, by which time the

(30) worst epidemics had probably already taken place.

Furthermore, the British tended to drive the native

populations away, rather than enslaving them as the

Spaniards did, so that the epidemics of British America

occurred beyond the range of colonists’ direct

(35) observation.

Even so, the surviving records of North America do

contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige-

nous population. In 1616-1619 an epidemic, possibly of

bubonic or pneumonic plague, swept coastal New

(40) England, killing as many as nine out of ten. During the

1630’s smallpox, the disease most fatal to the Native

American people, eliminated half the population of the

Huron and Iroquois confederations. In the 1820’s fever

devastated the people of the Columbia River area,

(45) killing eight out of ten of them.

Unfortunately, the documentation of these and other

epidemics is slight and frequently unreliable, and it is

ecessary to supplement what little we do know with

evidence from recent epidemics among Native Ameri-

(50) cans. For example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles

among the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay.

Quebec, affected 99 percent of the population and killed

7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern

medicine. Cases such as this demonstrate that even

(55) diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating

consequences when they strike an immunologically

defenseless community.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) refute a common misconception

  (B) provide support for a hypothesis

  (C) analyze an argument

  (D) suggest a solution to a dilemma

  (E) reconcile opposing viewpoints

  2. According to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics

  (A) recur more frequently than other chronic diseases

  (B) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population

  (C) involve populations with no prior exposure to a disease

  (D) usually involve a number of interacting diseases

  (E) are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases

  3. According to the passage, the British colonists wereunlike the Spanish colonists in that the British colonists

  (A) collected tribute from the native population

  (B) kept records from a very early date

  (C) drove Native Americans off the land

  (D) were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease

  (E) enslaved the native populations in America

  4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning Spanish tribute records?

  (A) They mention only epidemics of smallpox.

  (B) They were instituted in 1492.

  (C) They were being kept prior to the seventeenth century.

  (D) They provide quantitative and qualitative evidence about Native American populations.

  (E) They prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World.

  5. The author implies which of the following about measles?

  (A) It is not usually a fatal disease.

  (B) It ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.

  (C) It is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-soil epidemics.

  (D) It was not a significant problem in Spanish colonies.

  (E) It affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it.

  6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay?

  (A) They were almost all killed by the 1952 epidemic.

  (B) They were immunologically defenseless against measles.

  (C) They were the last native people to be struck by a virgin- soil epidemic.

  (D) They did not come into frequent contact with white Americans until the twentieth century.

  (E) They had been inoculated against measles.

  7. The author mentions the 1952 measles outbreak most probably in order to

  (A) demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on epidemic disease

  (B) corroborate the documentary evidence of epidemic disease in colonial America

  (C) refute allegations of unreliability made against the historical record of colonial America

  (D) advocate new research into the continuing problem of epidemic disease

  (E) challenge assumptions about how the statistical evidence of epidemics should be interpreted

  8. Which of the following, if newly discovered, would most seriously weaken the author’s argument concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in the depopulation of Native Americans?

  (A) Evidence setting the pre-Columbian population of the New World at only 80 million

  (B) Spanish tribute records showing periodic population fluctuations

  (C) Documents detailing sophisticated Native American medical procedures

  (D) Fossils indicating Native American cortact with smallpox prior to 1492

  (E) Remains of French settlements dating back to the sixteenth century

  Correct Answers: BCCCABBD

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重点单词   查看全部解释    
solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

想一想再看

n. 解答,解决办法,溶解,溶液

联想记忆
frequent ['fri:kwənt]

想一想再看

adj. 经常的,频繁的
vt. 常到,常去

 
continuous [kən'tinjuəs]

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adj. 连续的,继续的,连绵不断的

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corroborate [kə'rɔbəreit]

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v. 确证,使坚固

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reconcile ['rekənsail]

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vt. 和解,调和,妥协
vi. 调和

 
steep [sti:p]

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adj. 陡峭的,险峻的,(价格)过高的
n.

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disparity [dis'pæriti]

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n. 不一致

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primary ['praiməri]

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adj. 主要的,初期的,根本的,初等教育的

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documentation [.dɔkjumen'teiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 文件,证明文件,史实,[计]文件编制

 
dilemma [di'lemə]

想一想再看

n. 困境,进退两难

联想记忆

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