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许国璋英语听力第二册 Lesson 3

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PHYSICAL TRAINING
A: There goes the bell. It's time for physical training. Let's go to the sports ground.
B: What do we do today?
A: We'll run round the track first. Then we'll practise the high jump. After that we'll break into small groups. We can either play basketball or volleyball.
B: That's good. Our basketball team is going to play Class Three on Wednesday. We need a lot of practice.
A: Look, they are already lining up there. Let's run over and join them.

体育训练
A:铃响了,体育课的时间到了。我们去操场吧。
B:我们今天做什么呢?
A:首先我们要沿着跑道跑步,然后练跳高。那之后我们就分成几个小组,要么打篮球,要么打排球。
B:太好了。星期三我们班的篮球队要和三班比赛,我们需要多练习练习。
A:看,他们已经在那儿排起队来了,我们也跑过去排队吧。


NOTES TO THE TEXT

Robert Bruce, King of Scotland
King of Scotland是Robert Bruce的同位语。
Robert Bruce又称Robert I(罗伯特一世),他于1306年任苏格兰国王。1314年他率领苏格兰人民击败了由英格兰国王,Edward II(爱德华二世)率领的英格兰侵略军。1328年,也就是他去世前一年,他与英格兰缔结了《北安普敦条约》,使苏格兰摆脱了英格兰的统治,获得了独立。

Many centuries ago, Scotland was ruled by a king named Robert Bruce.
根据前面的介绍,many centuries ago指的是14世纪初叶;was ruled是被动语态。
a king named Robert Bruce意思相当于a king whose name was Robert Bruce;named是过去分词,修饰前面的名词king;过去分词短语作某个名词的后置定语时,在句法功能上相当于一个定语从句。

... ,Bruce took up arms and led his people in the defence of their country.
took up arms意思是“拿起武器”。
led his people in the defence of their country意思是“领导他的人民保卫他们的国家”;在英文中“领导某人做某事”要用lead somebody in的结构来表达,in后面可以跟名词短语或者动名词短语doing sth.
For ten years, he led his men in the search for the buried gold. 他带领手下人,花了十年时间在寻找埋在地下的金子。
Five years ago, he led a team in climbing the peak of the Himalayas. 五年前他曾率领一支队伍攀登喜马拉雅山的高峰。

Battle after battle was fought.
短语battle after battle的意思是“一场接一场的战斗”;after在此是介词,用以连接并列的两项,表示连续。例如:
bus after bus 一辆接一辆的公共汽车
day after day 日复一日
注意这句中的主语是battle,是单数,所以后面被动语态中的助动词也要相应的用第三人称单数形式was:was fought这一被动语态。

Six times Bruce led his brave little army against the enemy, and six times his men were beaten.
这是一个并列句,six times意思是“六次”,在句中作频度时间状语;介词against在这里表示抵抗;were beaten是被动语态,意思是“被打败”。



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