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经济学人:涉嫌种族清洗上将被免责 塞尔维亚人心有不甘

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Europe Justice in Croatia

欧洲 克罗地亚:争议的正义
Outs and ins
进进出出
The political ramifications of several judicial rulings
司法判决衍生的政治风波
Celebrating with the generals
与上将同庆
In the Balkans the big news is who is out of jail, who is in and who is going to court. All the cases are high-profile and all have political fall out. The most significant was the acquittal on November 16th of two Croatian generals by the UN war-crimes tribunal in The Hague. Croats were ecstatic, Serbs bitter.
谁出狱了,谁坐牢了,谁将接受审判,这是在巴尔干半岛上的重磅消息。每起案件都引人关注,其影响波及政治。其中的焦点是11月16日海牙联合国战犯特别法庭宣判两位克罗地亚上将无罪。克罗地亚人欣喜若狂,塞尔维亚人则痛饮一杯苦酒。

塞尔维亚人抗议种族清洗.jpg

Ante Gotovina and Mladen Markac were first convicted in 2011 of conspiring, as part of a “joint criminal enterprise”, to drive Serbs out of Croatia’s Krajina region. When Yugoslavia disintegrated in the early 1990s the Serbs, backed by Serbia and the Yugoslav army, carved out their own mini-state in Krajina. But in 1995 the Croatian army took most of it back. Some 200,000 Serbs fled, most never to return. Nobody denies that war crimes took place. But the acquittal of the two generals means that the court believes there was no organised plan for “ethnically cleansing” the Serbs.

格托维纳和马尔卡奇曾因参与将塞尔维亚人驱逐出克罗地亚克拉基纳地区的“共同犯罪”而在2011年被判罪。当南斯拉夫在90年代早期解体的时候,塞尔维亚人在塞尔维亚和南斯拉夫军队的支持下,辛劳拼搏,在克拉基纳创造出了自己的迷你小国。但在1995年克罗地亚军队将大部分领土收复,大约20万塞尔维亚人逃走了,他们中大多数一去不复返。没有人否认战争罪行的发生。但两位上将的无罪释放意味着法院相信,并不存在针对塞尔维亚人的有组织的种族清洗。
The generals returned home to a heroes’ welcome. Mr Gotovina may even enter politics. If he does it will be as a man of the right close to the Catholic church. No Croat has until now been convicted by the UN tribunal for actions during the war in Croatia. For Croats the ruling vindicates their struggle against the Serbs as one without original sin.
上将如英雄般凯旋而归。格托维纳上将甚至有可能从政。如果他从政的话,他的权力将会如日中天。目前尚不曾有克罗地亚人因为战争罪行而被联合国特别法庭判罪。对克罗地亚人而言,判决也证实了他们在对塞战争中是清白无罪的。
Serbs greeted the release of the generals with fury. The decision “belittles the Serb victims and makes them worthless,” said Ivica Dacic, Serbia’s prime minister. Serbs have always believed that the UN tribunal is just an anti-Serb kangaroo court. Liberals have fought tooth and nail to persuade their compatriots otherwise. For them the ruling is a catastrophe. On November 29th the court will rule on the appeal of Ramush Haradinaj, a former prime minister of Kosovo, and two others. They were acquitted in 2008 but an appeal was allowed—in part, said the court, because of “serious witness intimidation”. No Serbs expect them to be convicted now.
塞尔维亚人对上将的释放恼怒不堪。塞尔维亚首相达希科说,这样的判决“藐视塞尔维亚牺牲者,让他们的牺牲无足轻重”。塞尔维亚人一直以来认为联合国特别法庭只是一个反塞尔维亚人的“袋鼠法庭”。开明人士一直努力奋斗,劝说同胞事实并非如此。对他们而言,判决结果不啻一场大灾难。在11月19日,法院会处理对科索沃前首相哈拉迪纳吉和其他两人的上诉。他们在2008年被宣布无罪,但法院表示,由于存在“严重恐吓目击证人”的情节,所以有上诉的机会。没有塞尔维亚人认为他们现在会被宣判有罪。
If the court could not prove a “joint criminal enterprise” in Croatia, how can it prove that one existed in the cases of the two Bosnian Serb leaders on trial, Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic? One of the UN court’s remits is reconciliation. Legal judgments aside, achieving this will now be harder than ever.
如果法院不能证明在克罗地亚存在“共同犯罪”,那又如何能证明在对两位波斯尼亚的塞尔维亚领导人,拉特科·姆拉迪奇和拉多万·卡拉季奇的审判中存在这样的“共同犯罪”呢?一致性是联合国法庭的原则之一。先不说判决公正与否,眼下连达成一致性也比以往更为困难。
War crimes are not the only cases in the news. On November 20th Ivo Sanader, Croatia’s former prime minister, was jailed for ten years for corruption. A week earlier Radimir Cacic, Croatia’s deputy prime minister, resigned. He was convicted for causing two deaths in a road accident in Hungary and is set to go to prison. In Serbiaa former deputy prime minister has been arrested as part of a fraud investigation. And in Kosovo Fatmir Limaj, a significant political figure, has been charged with organised crime and corruption and sent for retrial on war-crimes charges of which he was previously acquitted. There has never been a better time to be a Balkan lawyer.
战争罪并非是新闻中唯一的案件。在11月20日,克罗地亚前首相埃沃·桑纳德因腐败而被判入狱十年。一周前,克罗地亚的副首相拉迪米尔潆偠奇宣布辞职。他因为在匈牙利的一起交通事故中造成两人死亡而被起诉,并行将入狱。在塞尔维亚一位前副首相在诈骗案的调查中被逮捕。在科索沃,一位政界显要俐马基因为有预谋的犯罪和腐败而被起诉,并为他此前已经宣布无罪的战争罪再次接受审判。现在到巴尔干半岛当律师真是再合适不过了。翻译:袁航

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trial ['traiəl]

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adj. 尝试性的; 审讯的
n. 尝试,努力

 
figure ['figə]

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n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
v

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jail [dʒeil]

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n. 监牢,监狱,拘留所
vt. 监禁,下狱

 
persuade [pə'sweid]

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vt. 说服,劝说

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trifling ['traifliŋ]

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adj. 微不足道的,不足取的,轻浮的 动词trifle

 
resigned [ri'zaind]

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adj. 认命的,顺从的,听任的 动词resign的过去

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prime [praim]

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adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的
n.

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appeal [ə'pi:l]

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n. 恳求,上诉,吸引力
n. 诉诸裁决

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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intimidation [intimi'deiʃən]

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n. 恐吓,威胁

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