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国民经济和社会发展计划2019年执行情况与2020年草案的报告(1)(中英对照)

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Report on the Implementation of the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2020 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

关于2019年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2020年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Delivered at the Third Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress on May 22, 2020

——2020年5月22日在第十三届全国人民代表大会第三次会议上

National Development and Reform Commission

国家发展和改革委员会

Esteemed Deputies,

各位代表:

The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to deliver this report on the implementation of the 2019 plan and on the 2020 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Third Session of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation. The Commission also invites comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

受国务院委托,现将2019年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2020年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十三届全国人大三次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。

I. Implementation of the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development

一、2019年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况

In 2019, under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, as well as the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all regions and departments fully implemented the guiding principles of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second, third, and fourth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee. We raised our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment; increased our confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and resolutely upheld General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely upheld the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We faithfully executed the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, implemented the Report on the Work of the Government and the 2019 Plan for National Economic and Social Development approved at the Second Session of the 13th NPC, and adopted the NPC Financial and Economic Affairs Committee’s suggestions based on its review of the 2019 plan. We followed the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, continued to apply the new development philosophy, advanced supply-side structural reform as our main task, pursued high-quality development, and took solid steps to ensure stability on six fronts.* We coordinated efforts to maintain stable growth, promote reform, make structural adjustments, improve people’s lives, guard against risks, and maintain stability. (*The six fronts refer to employment, the financial sector, foreign trade, foreign investment, investment, and expectations.) The main targets and tasks in economic and social development for the year were accomplished, and progress in achieving the main targets listed in the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) met our expectations. All of these successes laid a crucial foundation for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

2019年,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中全会精神,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,全面贯彻落实党中央、国务院决策部署,认真执行十三届全国人大二次会议审议批准的《政府工作报告》、2019年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会审查意见,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,深入贯彻新发展理念,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,推动高质量发展,扎实做好“六稳”工作,统筹推进稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险、保稳定,全年经济社会发展主要目标任务较好完成,“十三五”规划主要指标完成进度符合预期,为全面建成小康社会打下决定性基础。

1. We conducted well-conceived macro regulation and kept major economic indicators within an appropriate range. We strengthened range-based, targeted, well-timed, and precision regulation, stepped up coordination between policies, and improved the management of expectations, thus promoting stable and healthy economic growth.

(一)科学实施宏观调控,经济运行保持在合理区间。加强区间调控、定向调控、相机调控、精准调控,加强政策协调配合,强化预期管理,促进经济平稳健康发展。

1) Major macroeconomic targets were achieved. China’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached 99.1 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.1%, which was consistent with the projected target. A total of 13.52 million urban jobs were created, and the year-end survey-based and registered urban unemployment rates were 5.2% and 3.62% respectively. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 2.9%. A basic equilibrium was maintained with regard to the balance of payments, and foreign exchange reserves were kept at over US$ 3 trillion.

一是主要宏观指标完成情况良好。国内生产总值达到99.1万亿元,增长6.1%,符合预期目标。城镇新增就业1352万人,年末城镇调查失业率、城镇登记失业率分别为5.2%和3.62%。居民消费价格指数上涨2.9%。国际收支基本平衡,外汇储备保持在3万亿美元以上。

2) Counter-cyclical macro policy regulation proved to be effective. With the focus on cutting taxes and fees, we implemented a proactive fiscal policy with greater intensity and better performance, continued to improve the structure of government spending, and ensured sufficient funding for major areas such as the improvement of living standards. Revenue in the national general public budget was 19.04 trillion yuan, an increase of 3.8%; expenditures totaled 23.89 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.1%; and the fiscal deficit was 2.76 trillion yuan, the same as the budgeted figure. Tax and fee reductions totaled 2.36 trillion yuan over the year. We appropriately expanded the range of uses for special local government bonds and quickened the pace of bond issuance. We maintained a prudent monetary policy with an appropriate level of intensity. Counter-cyclical regulation continued to have an effect, and the credit structure continued to improve, while the credit supply to the real economy, particularly to micro and small businesses and private enterprises, was increased further. At the end of 2019, growth in the M2 money supply was 8.7%, and aggregate financing grew by 10.7%. We made greater efforts to implement the policy of prioritizing employment, as well as the policy of refunding unemployment insurance premiums, and increased support for enterprises in keeping employment stable. A stable employment situation was generally maintained with regard to key groups such as college graduates, rural migrant workers, and demobilized military personnel.

二是宏观政策逆周期调节有力有效。以减税降费为重点,积极的财政政策加力提效,财政支出结构持续优化,民生等重点领域资金需求得到有力保障。全国一般公共预算收入19.04万亿元,增长3.8%;全国一般公共预算支出23.89万亿元,增长8.1%;财政赤字2.76万亿元,与预算持平。全年减税降费2.36万亿元。合理扩大专项债券使用范围,加快专项债券发行使用。稳健的货币政策松紧适度,逆周期调节效果持续显现,信贷结构不断优化,对实体经济特别是小微企业、民营企业信贷投放力度进一步加大。年末广义货币(M2)余额增长8.7%,社会融资规模存量增长10.7%。更大力度实施就业优先政策,援企稳岗力度进一步加大,失业保险基金稳岗返还政策全面落实,高校毕业生、农民工、退役军人等重点群体就业总体保持稳定。

2. We moved forward with supply-side structural reform and promoted the formation of a strong domestic market. We adhered to our principles of consolidating the gains made in the five priority tasks, strengthening the dynamism of micro entities, upgrading industrial chains, and ensuring unimpeded flows in the economy. We consistently advanced industrial restructuring, and worked hard to keep circulation dynamic in order to ensure that market supply meets demand.

(二)深入推进供给侧结构性改革,促进形成强大国内市场。坚持“巩固、增强、提升、畅通”八字方针,持续推进产业结构调整,着力畅通供需循环。

1) Supply-side structural reform in agriculture was advanced. We made sustained efforts to ensure sufficient grain production, maintaining total grain output at over 650 million metric tons for the fifth year in a row. We adopted a strategy for securing the supply of major agricultural products and implemented a scheme to revitalize the production of soybeans. Functional zones for grain production and protective areas for the production of major agricultural products were established. Farmland irrigation and water conservancy continued to improve, with the total area of high-quality cropland increasing by 5.33 million hectares and the total area of farmland covered by efficient water-saving irrigation increasing by 1.33 million hectares. We continued our efforts to prevent and control African swine fever and accelerate the recovery of hog production, and improved the system for the production, supply, storage, and sale of vegetables. We refined the policy for setting minimum prices for state grain purchases and the policy for guaranteeing base prices for cotton. We advanced reform of the system for the state purchase and storage of major agricultural products and the reserve system for important agricultural supplies. Cold-chain logistics and storage facilities for agricultural products witnessed rapid development. We continuously promoted industrial integration in rural areas, resulting in the establishment of 107 modern agriculture industrial parks and 210 demonstration parks for integrated industrial development in rural areas. We also accelerated the formulation and improvement of a new policy framework to support and protect agriculture.

一是农业供给侧结构性改革深入推进。毫不放松抓好粮食生产,粮食总产量连续第5年保持在1.3万亿斤以上。启动重要农产品保障战略,实施大豆振兴计划。粮食生产功能区、重要农产品生产保护区基本划定。持续加强农田水利建设,完成8000万亩高标准农田和2000万亩高效节水灌溉任务。加强非洲猪瘟防控,加快恢复生猪生产,进一步完善蔬菜产供储销体系。完善粮食最低收购价政策和棉花目标价格政策,重要农产品收储制度和重要农资储备制度改革深入推进。农产品冷链物流仓储设施及冷链运输较快发展。农村产业融合发展持续推进,累计创建107个现代农业产业园、210个农村产业融合发展示范园。新型农业支持保护政策体系加快建立健全。

2) Transformation and upgrading of manufacturing picked up pace. We rolled out policies and measures to promote high-quality development of the manufacturing sector and released the Catalog of Industrial Structural Adjustments (2019). We continued to employ market- and law-based methods to cut outmoded coal production capacity by around 100 million metric tons, prudently moved forward with the merging and reorganization of steel enterprises, and implemented major petrochemical projects. We organized a new series of technological transformation projects, and promoted the demonstration and application of newly-developed equipment that was made in China such as Chinese standard type-A subway cars.

二是制造业转型升级步伐加快。出台推动制造业高质量发展政策措施,发布产业结构调整指导目录(2019年本)。运用市场化、法治化办法又淘汰煤炭落后产能1亿吨左右,稳妥推进钢铁企业兼并重组,推动重大石化项目建设。实施新一轮技术改造工程,推动中国标准地铁A型车等一批国产首台(套)技术装备示范应用。

3) Solid steps were taken to promote high-quality development of the service sector. We introduced policies and measures on high-quality development of the service sector and transformation and upgrading of traditional service industries, stepped up the development of new forms and new models of business, and promoted the integrated development of advanced manufacturing and modern services. We supported the development of platforms for generic technology R&D, industrial design, and the industrial internet.

三是服务业高质量发展扎实推进。出台支持服务业高质量发展、传统服务行业改造升级等政策措施,大力培育新业态新模式,推动先进制造业和现代服务业深度融合发展,支持共性技术研发、工业设计、工业互联网等平台建设。

4) More support was provided to help reduce costs in the real economy. The rate of value added tax (VAT) was lowered from 16% to 13% in manufacturing and several other industries, and from 10% to 9% in industries such as transportation and construction. We implemented general-benefit tax cuts for micro and small businesses, raising the VAT threshold from 30,000 yuan to 100,000 yuan in monthly sales for small-scale taxpayers. We enabled all provincial-level regions to reduce the ratio of enterprise contributions to workers’ basic old-age insurance to 16%, and extended for another year the policy of temporary reduction of premiums for unemployment insurance and workers’ compensation. We deepened reforms to liberalize interest rates, with overall financing costs being notably reduced throughout society. We settled overdue payments of 664.7 billion yuan owed by government departments and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) to private enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We further cut the number of items in the catalog of government-set business service fees, and cancelled or lowered some administrative charges. The price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses was cut by another 10% on average, thus reducing electricity costs for businesses by 84.6 billion yuan for the year. We helped businesses save 79 billion yuan by enabling them to buy electricity directly from power generation companies. We lowered the prices for refined oil products, natural gas city gate prices, and prices for natural gas transmission through trans-provincial pipelines, lightening the burden on consumers by approximately 65 billion yuan. Through rescinding or cutting railway charges, port charges, and civil airport charges, we helped reduce the burden on businesses by more than 10 billion yuan.

四是支持实体经济降成本力度加大。制造业等行业增值税税率从16%降至13%,交通运输业、建筑业等行业从10%降至9%,实施小微企业普惠性税收减免,小规模纳税人增值税起征点由月销售额3万元提高到10万元。企业职工基本养老保险单位缴费比例高于16%的省份已全部降至16%,阶段性降低失业、工伤保险费率政策延续一年。深化利率市场化改革,社会综合融资成本明显降低。清理政府部门和国有企业拖欠民营企业、中小企业账款6647亿元。进一步压减政府定价经营服务性收费目录,减免部分行政事业收费并降低收费标准。一般工商业平均电价再降10%,全年降低企业用电成本846亿元。扩大电力直接交易规模,降低企业购电成本约790亿元。降低成品油、天然气门站价格和跨省管道运输价格,减轻用户负担约650亿元。取消和降低铁路、港口、民用机场部分收费,减轻企业负担100多亿元。

5) New growth areas in consumption that benefit the people continued to expand. We introduced several policies and measures to speed up commodity distribution and facilitate consumption, to improve the quality and expand the size of the domestic services sector, to unlock consumption potential in the areas of culture and tourism, to encourage fitness and sports consumption, and to promote the development of “internet-plus social services.” We stepped up support for nighttime consumption, and encouraged the purchase of new automobiles, home appliances, and electronic products to replace old ones. Comprehensive demonstrations for introducing e-commerce into rural areas were carried out. Express delivery depots in rural areas exceeded 30,000, thus covering 96.6% of all townships and towns. Total annual retail sales of consumer goods exceeded 40 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.0%. Total online retail sales nationwide reached 10.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 16.5%, with sales of goods increasing by 19.5% and accounting for 20.7% of the total retail sales of consumer goods. We successfully organized a series of activities for the 2019 Chinese Brands Day.

五是消费惠民新增长点不断拓展。出台加快发展流通促进商业消费、促进家政服务业提质扩容、激发文化和旅游消费潜力、促进全民健身和体育消费、促进“互联网+社会服务”发展等政策措施,加大对夜间消费的支持力度,鼓励汽车、家电、电子产品更新消费。电子商务进农村综合示范深入实施,农村地区快递网点超过3万个,乡镇覆盖率达96.6%。全年社会消费品零售总额突破40万亿元,增长8.0%。全国网上零售额达10.6万亿元,增长16.5%,其中实物商品网上零售额增长19.5%,占社会消费品零售总额的20.7%。成功举办2019年中国品牌日系列活动。

6) We appropriately expanded effective investment in key areas. We published the Regulations on Government Investment, and lowered, as appropriate, capital contribution requirements for projects in priority areas. We improved the reserve mechanisms for major projects, and actively promoted the construction of projects funded by special bonds. We carried out public-private partnership (PPP) projects in a well-regulated and orderly way, and encouraged the participation of non-governmental capital in key areas to shore up points of weakness. Out of 172 major water conservancy projects, construction has already begun on 144 projects. The Plan for Developing China’s Strengths in Transportation was published. The construction of 23 national logistics hubs was steadily advanced. The preliminary work for the Chengdu-Lhasa railway progressed steadily. Beijing Daxing International Airport began operation. The construction of large hydropower stations such as Wudongde and Baihetan was accelerated. By the end of 2019, the total length of in-service railways exceeded 139,000 kilometers, including 35,000 kilometers of high-speed rail lines, the number of civil airports in service totaled 235, the total length of power grids of 220 KV and above increased by 34,000 kilometers, and trunk oil and gas pipelines increased by 4,000 kilometers. The fixed-asset investment for the year (excluding investment by rural households) rose by 5.4%, with investment from non-governmental sources growing by 4.7%, while the composition of investment witnessed a continuous improvement, with investment in high-tech industry and the social domain up 17.3% and 13.2% respectively.

六是重点领域有效投资合理扩大。发布实施《政府投资条例》,适当降低重点领域项目资本金比例。健全重大项目储备机制,积极推进专项债券项目建设。规范有序推进政府和社会资本合作(PPP),鼓励民间资本参与补短板重点领域建设。172项重大水利工程已累计开工144项。印发实施交通强国建设纲要。23个国家物流枢纽建设稳步推进。川藏铁路前期工作扎实推进,北京大兴国际机场建成投运,乌东德、白鹤滩等大型水电站加快建设。2019年底,铁路营业里程达13.9万公里,其中高速铁路3.5万公里,民用运输机场达235个,新增220千伏及以上电网里程3.4万公里,油气干线里程0.4万公里。全年固定资产投资(不含农户)增长5.4%,其中民间投资增长4.7%;投资结构持续优化,高技术产业投资和社会领域投资分别增长17.3%和13.2%。

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unified

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adj. 统一的;一致标准的 v. 统一;使一致(uni

 
reform [ri'fɔ:m]

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v. 改革,改造,革新
n. 改革,改良

联想记忆
application [.æpli'keiʃən]

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n. 应用; 申请; 专心
n. 应用软件程序

 
approximately [ə'prɔksimitli]

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adv. 近似地,大约

 
advanced [əd'vɑ:nst]

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adj. 高级的,先进的

 
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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adj. 传统的

 
foundation [faun'deiʃən]

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n. 基础,根据,建立
n. 粉底霜,基

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framework ['freimwə:k]

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n. 结构,框架,参照标准,体系

 
enterprise ['entəpraiz]

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n. 企业,事业,谋划,进取心

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n. 排,船游,吵闹
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